Presentation on theme: "At the end of this presentation you should be able to: Describe characteristics of autism. Discuss and understand how autism is identified and what causes."— Presentation transcript:
At the end of this presentation you should be able to: Describe characteristics of autism. Discuss and understand how autism is identified and what causes have been linked to autism. Identify the needs of a student who is autistic in the classroom and larger community. Understand the benefits of collaboration and communication across settings. Connect knowledge to specific case studies. Discuss and understand how instructional and curricular choices can support students with autism in progressing through the general education curriculum. Chapter 10 Objectives Autism Chapter Objectives
Who Is Jeremy Jones? Jeremy is a 13-year-old boy with excellent mapping skills. He rehearses his necessary social skills without prompting. Using schoolwide positive behavior supports, Jeremy has been included in the general curriculum. He exhibits some common characteristics typical of students with autism. Chapter 10 Autism Connect knowledge to specific case studies.
How Do You Recognize Students with Autism? IDEA — Autism is a developmental disability that affects children prior to the age of three. –It most significantly affects three areas: Verbal & nonverbal communication Social interaction Academic performance Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — pervasive developmental disorder Autism is a spectrum disorder, including Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Defining Autism How Do You Recognize Students with Autism? Describe characteristics of autism. video clip http://pbs-safvirage.com
Language Development — ranging from no verbal communication to complex communication –Delayed Language –Echolalia Social Development — delays in social interaction and social skills –Impaired use of nonverbal behavior –Lack of peer relationships –Failure to spontaneously share enjoyment, interests, and achievements with others –Lack of reciprocity Describing the Characteristics How Do You Recognize Students with Autism? Describe characteristics of autism.
Repetitive behavior –Obsessions, tics, and perseverations Problem behavior – Self-injurious behavior – Aggression –stereotyped behavior (internal) vs. fixation (external) Need for environmental predictability Sensory and movement disorders (44-88%) Intellectual functioning Describing the Characteristics How Do You Recognize Students with Autism? Describe characteristics of autism.
Theory of Mind Lack of understanding that beliefs, desires, intentions are different from those of others Interferes with reciprocal relationships Small social networks
Causes Historical perspectives on causes –“Refrigerator mothers” Biomedical causes –Abnormalities in brain development –Neurochemistry –Genetic factors Immunization http://www.childadvocate.net/autis m_and_immunizations.htm Identifying the Causes & Prevalence How Do You Recognize Students with Autism? Describe characteristics of autism and discuss what causes have been linked to autism. Prevalence Prevalence has grown over the last decade to 7.5 children for every 10,000 children born Males outnumber females 4 to 1 Video clip http://www.rain-man.mov
Evaluating Students How Do You Evaluate Students with Autism? Discuss and understand how autism is identified. Figure 10-1
Usually occurs in early childhood Often uses some of the same tests given to students with mental retardation and severe/multiple disabilities Criteria may include: –Speech and language –Academic achievement –Cognitive functioning –Medical physical status Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised How Do You Evaluate Students with Autism? Determining the Presence Discuss and understand how autism is identified.
Functional assessment — an ecological assessment –Describe the nature of the behaviors –Gather information from interested parties –Determine why the student engages in problem behavior –Hypothesize relationship between behavior and events before, during, and after the behavior –Incorporate functional assessment information into the IEP –Help student develop alternative behaviors Determining the Nature and Extent of Services Identify the needs of an autistic student in the classroom and larger community. How Do You Evaluate Students with Autism?
Including Students How Do You Ensure Progress in the General Curriculum? Identify the needs of an autistic student in the classroom and larger community. Figure 10-2
Augmenting curriculum and instruction –Positive behavior supportsPositive behavior supports Create a positive learning context for all students Group support Individual support Augmenting instruction –Social stories Planning Universally Designed Learning Discuss and understand how instructional and curricular choices can support students with autism in progressing through the general education curriculum. How Do You Ensure Progress in the General Curriculum?
Positive Behavior Support 80% reduction in problem behavior Functional assessment Focus on individual and significant persons Reorganization of environment Effective for pervasive and intermittent problems
Positive Behavior Support Three components –Universal support –Group support –Individual support
Universal Support Clearly defined expectations Instruction of expectations Acknowledgement of appropriate behavior Evaluate and adapt programs as needed through team approach Target support for intense skill development
Group Support Observation Personal interviews Development of hypothesis Teaching of expected behaviors
Individual Support Functional assessment Development of positive support plan Incorporation into IEP Allow access to general curriculum
Positive Behavior Support Plan Describe behavior FBA findings Hypothesis Desired behavior IEP goals and objectives Interventions Crisis management Monitoring procedures
Make instruction across school, home, and community settings coherent –Key people in each setting must collaborate Collaboration across disciplines –Students may have sensory and movement disorders –Educators, occupational therapists, speech and language therapists, physical therapists, adaptive physical educators, students, and families must collaborate to provide effective intervention in sensory processing. –Occupational therapy is very common for children with autism.Occupational therapy Sensory processing Coordination Fine-motor skills Collaborating to Meet Students’ Needs Understand the benefits of collaboration and communication across settings. How Do You Ensure Progress in the General Curriculum?
What Can You Learn from Others Who Teach Students with Autism? Early Childhood Early intervention is crucial for children with autism. Program staff conducts a functional behavioral assessment:functional behavioral assessment –Nature of the behavior –Context in which behavior occurs –Antecedents and consequences of behavior –Communicative functions of behavior Requires collaboration from family and all specialists to develop a behavioral plan to be used in all settings. Early Childhood What Can You Learn from Others Who Teach Students with Autism? Connect knowledge to specific case studies.
Elementary Years Tiffany Park Elementary, Seattle, WA Utilized individual positive behavior supportsindividual positive behavior supports A collaborative team worked to determine the functions of the behavior of one student, Sam. The team restructured Sam’s environment, collected data, communicated daily with each other, and used the same consistent responses to behaviors. Sam succeeded and became an honor student who participates in age- appropriate activities with peers who do not have disabilities. Elementary What Can You Learn from Others Who Teach Students with Autism? Connect knowledge to specific case studies.
Middle and Secondary What Can You Learn from Others Who Teach Students with Autism? Connect knowledge to specific case studies. Middle and Secondary Years Use of social storiessocial stories –A process that results in a product for use by the individual student with autism –A short story that describes a situation, concept, or social skill that needs reinforcement –Allows the child to be familiar with the situation and know the appropriate behavioral response Utilize both individual and schoolwide positive behavior support.schoolwide positive behavior support
Transitional and Post Secondary What Can You Learn from Others Who Teach Students with Autism? Connect knowledge to specific case studies. Transitional and Post-Secondary Years Community Services for Autistic Adults and Children (CSAAC)Community Services for Autistic Adults and Children Serves adults and students to allow them to remain in their communities to work, live, and spend recreational time Believes all persons with autism can be contributing members of their community with the proper supports Provides job coaches and residential support
A Vision for Jeremy’s Future Plans to continue on to his local high school Possible opportunities to work with the local weatherman May be able to use the local bus system to get around the city and volunteer in the family church with his parents Seems likely he can become part of the neighborhood Chamber of Commerce activities He could possibly go on to attend the local community college to develop a career utilizing his strong mapping skills. A Vision for Jeremy’s Future Connect knowledge to specific case studies.