2 Learning OutcomesExplain population trends and patterns in births (Crude Birth Rate), natural increase, and mortality (Crude Death Rate, infant and child mortality rates), fertility and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world. Analyse population pyramids. Explain population momentum and its impact on population projections. Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Define: births (Crude Birth Rate), natural increase mortality Crude Death Rate Skills: Graph interpretation Explaining trends Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient (?)
3 Key wordsBirth rate Death rate Infant mortality Malthus Doubling time Life expectancy Fertility rate Population pyramid Demographic transition model Population momentum
5 Exam Style Question Explain the differences in [births | natural increase | mortality | fertility | life expectancy] in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]This question is an example of the type of question that may be seen on an exam.
6 Governments, NGOs, UN, and other national / international agencies spend time money and energy researching populations and world population trends. They study things like: How many people there are Where people are, where they are not Where people move to Where are people being born most, and where are they dying most Where will people be born most, and where will they die the most
7 Why would they do this? On a piece of paper, quickly brainstorm the population issues/consequences (local, national, global) that may be of concern to geographers.
9 So let’s start with some basics.. Global Scale World Population Growth
10 This formula can be expressed as: When we talk about world population growth, there is a simple formula that determines the population sizeThis formula can be expressed as:Or, births - deaths
11 On a piece of paper, draw a line- graph that represents what you think world population growth looked like from the year 0 to Use Time as the X axis and population size as the Y axis
12 Now, on your graph, write down how many people you think are added to the world population (today) each year.
13 Let’s see how accurate you were CLICK HEREED_ANIM.swf&titre=How%20will%20the%20world%20p opulation%20change%20in%20the%20future?&lg=enPop quiz:Around what year did the earth have it’s first Billion people?
14 Sources: UN Population Division and Population Reference Bureau.
15 What was first to change (for world population growth) birth rates, or death rates? Why might this have happened? Write a simple explanation on a piece of paper.
16 Quiz: What is doubling time, and what has been happening to doubling time more recently in history? What is the replacement rate? What happens when replacement rates are exceeded?
17 Let’s look at pop growth spatially Click HerePay attention to population distribution.By the 1st Billion people, how would you describe the population distribution?
18 Thinking SpatiallyUsing a map, look at today’s world population distribution. Suggest reasons for Canada, Australia, Africa, and South America’s population distribution.
19 Review terms:Crude Birth Rate: Crude birth rate is the # of childbirths per 1,000 people per year CBR does not really tell us that much about an individual country but it is helpful in other calculations. There tends to be a negative correlation between birth rates and measures of economic prosperity at the national level.
20 Crude death rate: The number of people that die in a year in a given population—most often a country. Historically, death rates tend to fall before birth rates, which has the effect of increasing population growth.