Presentation on theme: "POWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06"— Presentation transcript:
1 POWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06 MIT SOLAR DECATHLONPV TECHNOLOGY FOUNDAMENTALSPV MANUFACTURERSPOWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06TABLE OF CONTENTSSOLAR POWER OVERVIEWPV TECHNOLOGY BASICSPV MANUFACTURES-PROFILESAVAILABLE SOLAR PANELSPV PERIPHERALSTHE FUTURENANOCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS
2 Photovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the lab to the market. GENERAL OVERVIEWPV was recognized as an important source of space power in the 1950s,Terrestrial PV development began in response to the 1970s oil crises.Concern for the environment, as well as global efforts to seek indigenous sources of energy, drives the investment in PV research and deployment.Today, PV is a several-billion-dollar industry worldwide, with more than 520 MW of PV modules shipped in 2002.These include large, multi-megawatt installations feeding into the utility grid, kilowatt rooftop systems supplying power to a home or business, and single 50- or 100-W PV modules on homes in developing countries.REF: articlePhotovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the lab to the market..By Lawrence Kazmerski and Thomas Surek,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
3 PV technology basics Solar cells are semiconductor devices that produce electricity from sunlight via the photovoltaic effect.Sunlight strikes the cell, photons with energy above the semiconductor bandgap impart enough energy to createelectron-hole pairs.A junction between dissimilarly doped semiconductor layers sets up a potential barrier in the cell, which separates the light-generated charge carriers.This separation induces a fixed electric current and voltage in the device. The electricity is collected and transported by metallic contacts on the top and bottom surfaces ofthe cell.How PV Cells WorkA typical silicon PV cell is composed of a thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of a thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type) silicon.An electrical field is created near the top surface of the cell where these two materials are in contact, called theP-N junction.When sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell, this electrical field provides momentum and direction to light-stimulated electrons, resulting in a flow of current when the solar cell is connected to an electrical loadDiagram of photovoltaic cell.
4 Applicable semiconductor materials> Cell Efficiencies PV technology basicsApplicable semiconductor materials> Cell Efficienciessilicon (Si),gallium arsenide (GaAs),cadmium telluride (CdTe),copper indium diselenide (CIS),hydrogenated amorphous silicon.There are significant differences between the best performance and the theoretically predicted value for each material; closing these gaps is the subject of ongoing research (see figure).
5 PV Cells, Modules, & Arrays PV technology basicsPV Cells, Modules, & ArraysIn the case of a single-junction device, the efficiency of the solar cell, the ratio of the power produced, and the incident light power are limited.Photons with energies below the bandgap of the material produce only heat. Excess energy above that needed to generate electron-hole pairs also produces heat.A multijunction device, in which two or more solar cells are stacked on top of each other, can exploit different portions of the solar spectrum.For example, a four-junction device with bandgaps of 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 electron volts (eV) results in a theoretical efficiency of more than 52%.The multijunction approach, however, presents significant challenges in both materials preparation and device design.Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels.Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental building block of PV systems.Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is the complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV modules and panels.
6 PV technology basics How a PV System Works PV systems are like any other electrical power generating systems, just the equipment used is different than that used for conventional electromechanical generating systems.Depending on the functional and operational requirements of the system,the specific components required, and may include major componentsDC-AC power inverter,battery bank,system and battery controller,auxiliary energy sourcesand sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances).In addition, an assortment of balance of system (BOS) hardware,Including wiring, overcurrent, surge protection and disconnect devices, and other power processing equipment.
7 Why Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems? PV technology basicsWhy Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems?Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather).Other reasons batteries are used in PV systems are to operate the PV array near its maximum power point, to power electrical loads at stable voltages, and to supply surge currents to electrical loads and inverters.In most cases, a battery charge controller is used in these systems to protect the battery from overcharge and overdischarge.In many stand-alone PV systems, batteries are used for energy storage. Figure shows a diagram of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC and AC loadsDiagram of stand-alone PV systemwith battery storage powering DC and AC loads.
8 PV technology basics Types of PV Systems How Are Photovoltaic Systems Classified?Photovoltaic power systems are generally classified according to:functional and operational requirements,component configurations,how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads.The two principle classifications aregrid-connected or utility- interactive systemsstand-alone systems.Photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems Grid-Connected (Utility-Interactive) PV Systems.Diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system
9 photovoltaic hybrid system. PV technology basicsphotovoltaic hybrid system.Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid, and are generally designed and sized to supply certain DC and/or AC electrical loads.These types of systems may be powered by a PV array only, or may use wind, an engine-generator or utility power as an auxiliary power source in what is called a PV-hybrid system.
10 Direct-coupled PV system. PV technology basicsThe simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC loadSince there is no electrical energy storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems, the load only operates during sunlight hours, making these designs suitable for common applications such as ventilation fans, water pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar thermal water heating systems.Matching the impedance of the electrical load to the maximum power output of the PV array is a critical part of designing well-performing direct-coupled system.For certain loads such as positive-displacement water pumps, a type of electronic DC-DC converter, called a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used between the array and load to help better utilize the available array maximum power output.Direct-coupled PV system.
11 PV technology basics How PV Cells Are Made crystalline silicon The process of fabricating conventional single- and polycrystalline silicon PV cells begins very pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon - a material processed from quartz and used extensively throughout the electronics industry.The polysilicon is then heated to melting temperature, and trace amounts of boron are added to the melt to create a P-type semiconductor material.Next, an ingot, or block of silicon is formed, commonly using one of two methods:1) by growing a pure crystalline silicon ingot from a seed crystal drawn from the molten polysiliconor 2) by casting the molten polysilicon in a block, creating a polycrystalline silicon material.Individual wafers are then sliced from the ingots using wire saws and then subjected to a surface etching process. After the wafers are cleaned, they are placed in a phosphorus diffusion furnace, creating a thin N-type semiconductor layer around the entire outer surface of the cell.Next, an anti-reflective coating is applied to the top surface of the cell, and electrical contacts are imprinted on the top (negative) surface of the cell.An aluminized conductive material is deposited on the back (positive) surface of each cell, restoring the P-type properties of the back surface by displacing the diffused phosphorus layer.Each cell is then electrically tested, sorted based on current output, and electrically connected to other cells to form cell circuits for assembly in PV modules.crystalline siliconThe conventional technology that supports more than 85% of today's PV market is based on wafers of crystalline Si.Production capacities are expected to more than double in the next three to five years, and the products are proven and accepted in the markets.Single-crystal ingots are pulled from the melt, or polycrystalline ingots are cast in a crucible that is consumed in the process. Technical advances include the growth of ingots as big as 300 kg, the growth of multiple ingots with melt replenishment, and the reduction of consumable materials and energy costs. Significant R&D effort has been focused on reducing defects, improving doping, and automating the growth process. Still, for single-crystal Si, the best commercial module efficiencies are only about 15%.Image: A solar cell, made from a poly-crystalline silicon wafer
12 Thin-Film Photovoltaics PV technology basicsThin-Film PhotovoltaicsThin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured by depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor material on a glass or thin stainless-steel substrate in a vacuum chamber.A laser scribing process is used to separate and weld the electrical connections between individual cells in a module.Thin-film photovoltaic materials offer great promise for reducing the materials requirements and manufacturing costs for PV modules and systems.Si ribbon and sheet technologies, which avoid the cost and material losses associated with slicing ingots, are the first of the new PV technologies to be commercialized. About 6% of today's PV modules are made using these methods. Most notable are the edge-defined, film-fed growth process, the string ribbon process, and the Si-film process (growth of a high-speed, continuous Si sheet of a variety of substrates). Cell and module efficiencies are similar to those for polycrystalline Si wafers from ingots—about 12% at best—with somewhat lower efficiencies for the small-grained sheet materials.Ongoing incremental improvements will probably reduce manufacturing costs and increase module performance, keeping these technologies as the mainstay of PV markets for years to come.
13 PV technology basics Pros and Cons of PV Photovoltaic systems have a number of merits and unique advantages over conventional power-generating technologies.PV systems can be designed for a variety of applications and operational requirements, andcan be used for either centralized or distributed power generation.PV systems have no moving parts, are modular, easily expandable and even transportable in some cases. Energy independence and environmental compatibility are two attractive features of PV systems.The fuel (sunlight) is free, and no noise or pollution is created from operating PV systems. In general, PV systems that are well designed and properly installed require minimal maintenance and have long service lifetimes.At present, the high cost of PV modules and equipment (as compared to conventional energy sources) is the primary limiting factor for the technology. Consequently, the economic value of PV systems is realized over many years. In some cases, the surface area requirements for PV arrays may be a limiting factor. Due to the diffuse nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2 (86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity.
14 PV manufacturers> Spire BIPV BIPV is Building Integrated Photovoltaics.It’s more than just mounting solar panels on a roof. It’s integrating solar electricity into the design of a building or structure so that the solar components also serve as structural or design elements.Spire Corporation - HeadquartersOne Patriots ParkBedford, MA (USA)Toll Free:Phone:Fax:Spire offers SPI-LINE turnkey production lines for module manufacturing at production capacities ranging from a few hundred kilowatt up to 50 megawatts per year and beyond.Spire provides state of the art production lines for the manufacture of silicon wafers and solar cells.
15 Spire installation examples PV manufacturers> Spire > considered leading in BIPVRoof SystemsGround Mounted SystemsPole & Structure Mounted SystemsSpire installation examples
16 Spire BIPV system case studies PV manufacturers > Spire > considered leading in BIPVAwning SystemsSpire manufactured and retrofitted two BIPV systems for a commercial building that serves as a vital community center. The systems include a 25-kilowatt roof tile system and a 7-kilowatt awning system.Curtain Wall SystemsBIPV panels can be mounted vertically on an exterior wall. An opaque panel can take the place of traditional siding. A transparent or semi-transparent panel can be mounted on an exterior wall, or on the roof, acting as a power-generating skylight. This allows the panel to be visible from indoors, providing partial shade and casting attractive dapple patterns.case study - bethel.pdfSpire BIPV system case studies
17 InSpire Solar Data Monitoring PV manufacturers >Spire > considered leading in BIPVCustom BIPVSpire manufactures its own BIPV modules, so it has the flexibility to produce custom and one-of-a-kind designs. These can be integrated into unique application solutions.InSpire Solar Data MonitoringInSpire systems are among the most user friendly monitoring systems on the market, available only from Spire Solar. InSpire systems range in capability from simplistic energy performance data monitoring, to complex platforms that can be expanded upon for whole building commissioning. With real time data monitoring, the value of your PV system becomes a tangible asset available for instant use for educational or marketing purposes.* State of the art, user friendly technology* Touch screen monitors for desktop displays* Kiosks with integrated touch screen monitors for lobby or museum displays* Online data monitoring that is available from anywhere with Internet accessThis InSpire graph shows the energy produced by several Spire solar systems during a one week period in January These systems are located in the northeast United States. InSpire lets you easily monitor your own solar system.BIPV systems enable architects and designers to develop customized photovoltaic applications, going beyond the typical installations afforded by standard module design. To learn how Spire has developed and implemented innovative solar solutions for its customers, read the Case StudiesInSpire Solar Data Monitoring
18 PV manufacturers> Spire How much roof space do I need for a PV system?A typical PV system requires about 100 square feet for every kilowatt installed on a pitched roof, and up to 200 square feet per kilowatt on a flat roof. PV systems should be installed facing south for maximum electricity production.The capacity of a PV system is stated in terms of the number of watts, kilowatts, or megawatts it can produce in standard sunlight conditions. For example, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, U.S., Spire has installed solar modules for which each kilowatt (kW) of PV capacity produces about 1, ,400 kilowatt-hours per year, depending on the angle at which the panels are mounted.The electricity you purchase from the utility is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most single-family homes in the U.S. use 20 kWh or more per day. A refrigerator uses 1.2 kWh per day and a computer uses 2.4 kWh per 8-hour workday.Spire's in-house manufacturing provides exceptional flexibility to produce unique BIPV modules to meet almost any specifications and design requirements. Spire has extensive experience working through the US Green Building Council and working with architects, designers and buildersto produce BIPV systems for integration into LEED-certified buildings.Let Spire produce your next custom BIPV modules. Contact Spire at to discuss your manufacturing needs.Spire general facts
19 PV manufacturers> Evergreen 138 Bartlett Street | Marlboro, MA USA |TL: | FX:Cedar Series Photovoltaic Modules* Each module is individually tested to ensure field performance meets or exceeds specifications.* Solar cells are matched to reduce internal losses and the possibility of hot spots.* Rugged, durable anodized aluminum frame makes for strong, stable mechanical mounting.* Industry standard EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) and Tedlar™ construction protects solar cells from mechanical and environmental stress.Advanced technology with promise for the future* String Ribbon™ polycrystalline solar cells outperform thin films and achieve comparable performance to bulk crystalline technologies while using half as much silicon.* The proprietary cell fabrication process is among the most environmentally friendly in the business.The power of PV* Photovoltaics (PV) provide clean, quiet, reliable electricity from sunlight.* No moving parts to wear out.* No emmisions - power that's good for the environment.* The Sun - a limitless, readily-available power source.
20 Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells Announce Partnership with REC PV manufacturers > > LOCAL INNOVATIVE PV COMPANYEvergreen Solar and Q-Cells Announce Partnership with RECLeading Solar Silicon Supplier Joins EverQ VentureMARLBORO, Massachusetts, & THALHEIM, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 28, Evergreen Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq: ESLR), a manufacturer of solar power products with its proprietary, low-cost String Ribbon(TM) wafer technology, and Q-Cells AG, the world's largest independent manufacturer of crystalline silicon solar cells, today announced a partnership with Renewable Energy Corporation ASA (REC), based in Hovik, Norway. The world's largest manufacturer of solar-grade silicon and multicrystalline wafers, REC is joining EverQ, a strategic partnership between Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells that is currently building a 30-megawatt solar wafer, cell and module manufacturing plant in Thalheim, Germany.
21 PV manufacturers> Evergreen The Company maintains strong ties to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including the active involvement of String Ribbon's inventor, Prof. Emanuel Sachs.The figure above illustrates the patented String Ribbon manufacturing process ongoing within the furnace shown to the right.
22 PV manufacturers> Sunpower Our Company headquarters and research and development facilities are located in Sunnyvale, California, the heart of Silicon Valley.SunPower SolarSunPower Corporation designs, manufactures and sells high efficiency solar cells and solar panels that generate electricity from sunlight for residential, commercial and remote power applications.Our proprietary all back contact silicon solar cell technology produces up to 50% more power per square foot compared to conventional solar cells.Our SPR-200 solar panels feature a unique, uniformly black design that many home and business owners prefer.SunPower’s A-300 Solar CellA-300 SunPower solar cells are unique because the metal contacts needed to collect and conduct electricity are on the back surface of the solar cells – away from the sunlight.This design eliminates reflective metal contacts on the front of the solar cell. In addition to improving cell performance, this design leaves the front surface with a uniformly black appearance.
23 SunPower’s Technology Path PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCYSunPower’s Technology PathDr. Swanson (n 1988 Dr. Swanson founded SunPower to commercialize high-efficiency photovoltaic cell technology for use in solar concentrators) and his team at SunPower discovered that their solar cell technology designed for concentrators offered great advantages in other applications as well. In 2001, SunPower solar cells were used to power NASA’s Helios solar powered airplane to a world record powered-flight altitude of 96,863 feet.The 22%-efficient lightweight solar cells were incorporated directly into the curved wing surfaces.
24 Superior Performance, Superior Aesthetics PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCYSuperior Performance, Superior AestheticsSunPower's high performance solar cells and solar panels offer both maximum power from your roof as well as a uniquely attractive system design. To review a slide presentation about our proprietary back contact solar cell technology, (see attached pdf)
25 PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY Solar cells are semiconductor devices that directly convert sunlight into electricity. Our A-300 solar cell has a rated power value of 3.1 watts and a conversion efficiency of between 20% to 21.5%.Our A-300 solar cell is designed without highly reflective metal contact grids or current collection ribbons on the front of the solar cells. This feature enables our solar cells to be assembled into solar panels that exhibit a more uniform appearance than conventionalsolar panels.
26 Overview Available Solar Panels PV manufacturers >
28 BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel PV solar panel specificationsUnavailable in 2005BP Solar BP 4170S170 Watt 24V Monocrystalline Solar PanelThe BP 4170 solar panel is designed to provide superior performance for residential, commercial, and industrial grid-connect systems. By increasing the diameter of the cell, performance is maximized while improving aesthetics. With time-tested monocrystalline silicon solar cells and installation-speeding polarized connectors, it provides cost-effective power for systems that demand premium module efficiency.Electrical SpecificationsMaximum Power: 170 WattsNominal Voltage: 34.7 voltsVoltage at Pmax: 34.7 VoltsCurrent at Pmax: 4.9 AmpsWarranted minimum Pmax: WattsShort-circuit current: 5.4 AmpsOpen-circuit voltage: 44.0 VoltsMechanical SpecificationsDimensions (LxWxD): 62.8 x 31.1 x 1.97 inches (1595x790x50) mmWeight: 34 lbs (15.4kg)Solar Cells: 72 cells in a 6x12 matrix connected in seriesOutput Cables: MC Connectors RHW AWG# 12 cable with polarized weatherproof DC rated connectorsDiodes: Three 9A, 45V Schottky by-pass diodes includedConstruction: Front: High-transmission 3mm (1/8th inch) tempered glass; Back: Tedlar; Encapsulant: EVAFrame: Rugged clear anodized aluminum alloy type universal frameLimited Warranty: 25 yearsQuality and Safety ListingsESTI, CE, TUV, UL ListedNote: These panels must ship via truck freight due to size. Please call or for a shipping quote and to order.***Unavailable in 2005***BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel1561 Your price: $ pad
30 Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD PV solar panel specificationsEvergreen Solar EC-115-GD$539.00Electrical SpecificationsMaximum Power: 115 WattsPower Maximum: 17.3 VoltsPower Maximum: 6.65 AmpsOpen-circuit Voltage: 21.5 VoltsShort-Circuit Current: 7.26 AmpsNo. of Cells: 72Max. Series Fuse: 15 AmpsUL System Voltage Rating: 600VTUV System Voltage Rating: 800VMechanical SpecificationsLength: 62.5"/1588 mmWidth: 25.69"/653 mmDepth: 1.39"/35 mmWeight: 28 lbs/12.7 kgSafety and Quality TestsIEC 1215 (IEC 503, ISPRA) CertifiedUL Listed, Class C Fire RatingTUV Safety Class II CertifiedCE25 year limited power warrantyTemporarily Out of StockEvergreen Solar EC-115-GD, 115 Watt Solar PanelEvergreen Solar EC-102-GD, 102 Watt Solar Panel$499.00Evergreen Solar EC-110-GD, 110 Watt Solar Panel - Limited SupplyYour price: $524.00
31 PV solar panel specifications GE Energy Solar PanelsGE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel$599.00GE Energy 165, 165 Watt Solar Panel$719.00GE Energy GEPV-072, 72 Watt Solar PanelYour price: $459.00GE Energy GEPV-065, 65 Watt Solar PanelYour price: $449.00GE Energy GEPV-050-M 50 Watt Solar Panel$365.00GE Energy GEPV-030-M 30 Watt Solar Panel$239.00
32 GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel PV solar panel specificationsGE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar PanelElectrical PerformanceTypical Performance CharacteristicsPeak Power (Wp): Watts 110Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp): Volts 16.7Maximum Power Current (Imp): Amps 6.6Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): Volts 21.2Short Circuit Current (Isc): Amps 7.4Short Circuit Temperature Coefficient: mA/?C +3Open Circuit Voltage Coefficient: V/?C -0.08Maximum Power Temperature Coefficient: %/?C -0.5Maximum Series Fuse: Amps 15Overall Physical PropertiesLength: 58.1 inches (1,477 mm)Width: 26.0 inches (661 mm)Depth of Frame: 1.4 inches (35 mm)Depth Including J-box: 2.2 inches (55 mm)Connector Length (when applicable): 15.0 inches (381 mm)Weight: 26.1 pounds (11.9 kg)Mounting Hole LocationsCenter Spacing: 25.3 inches (643 mm)Edge Distance: 16.4 inches (417 mm)Width Spacing: 24.3 inches (616 mm)Mounting Hole Diameter: 0.26 inches (6.7 mm)Physical Design PropertiesWeight (Wind) Bearing Potential: 50 lb/ft (125 mph equivalent)Hailstone Impact Resistance: 1 inch at 50 mph (25 mm at 80 kph)GE Energy's technologically advanced solar electric power products offer high quality and customer value. They are all based on crystalline silicon, the material of choice for efficiency and reliability for more than 25 years. Our single-crystal solar cells are among the most efficient commercially available today. We offer a full line of photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar modules which utilize a series of cells wired together and complete packages for residential, commercial and industrial systems.Designed for optimum use in residential, commercial and battery charging applications, the GEPV-110-M solar module contains 36 single-crystal cells connected in series, and generates a peak power of 110 watts at 16.7 volts.
33 Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels PV solar panel specificationsGlobal Solar Energy Flexible Solar PanelsGSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 24 Volt Desert CamoYour price: $789.00GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 12 Volt Desert CamoYour price: $789.00GSE SUNLINQ 12 Watt Portable Solar Panel$167.00GSE Portable Power Pack 55 Watt 12 Volt Desert CamoYour price: $869.00
34 PV solar panel specifications Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar PanelsGSE P3 55 Watt 12 Volt Flexible Solar Panel Desert CamoIn Stock and Ready to ShipGlobal Solar's thin-film photovoltaic technology is enabling solar power products to be portable, flexible, foldable, durable and lightweight. As a result we are able to create solutions for a wide range of military power requirements. The overall benefits of our military solar power products are to, enable extended missions, improve logistics by enabling field charging thereby reducing the number of batteries in the field and provide a significant cost reduction when compared to primary batteries. Global Solar Energy works closely with CECOM and the US Army's Rechargeable Battery Program.Portable Power Pack (P3)The P3 is a solar-energized power generator for mobile power needs. Incorporating solid state, thin-film, PowerFLEX™ solar technology, the P3 provides an excellent choice for situations that require lightweight, durable, silent power. Re-charge batteries, power communication equipment and mobile electronics, plus reduce the battery logistic challenge with the P3. It provides silent energy independence to the user.The P3 Portable Power Pack is used worldwide to provide users an alternate power generator for charging lead-acid, Nickel Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. The P3 will enable extended missions, provide energy security, restore power silently and can provide power for remote, portable surveillance equipment.A primary battery can only be used once. Secondary batteries can be recharged several hundred times. Recent studies show that a P3 solar charger pays for itself in fewer than fifteen recharges. That is equivalent to several hundred FREE BATTERIES!Twice the power to weight ratio of alternative solar generators, the P3 is ideal for situations requiring power renewal to batteries and mobile electronics. The P3 Portable Power Pack folds for easy transport and storage
35 PV solar panel specifications ApplicationsWater pumpingCommunicationsOutdoor lightingRural electrificationRecreational vehiclesStand-alone or grid-connected AC applicationsElectrical CharacteristicsNominal Voltage: 24 voltMaximum Power: 150 WShort-Circuit Current: 4.45 AmpsOpen Circuit Voltage: 43.2 VoltsMaximum Power Current: 4.35 AmpsMaximum Power Voltage: 34.6 VoltsPhysical CharacteristicsCell type: 125 mm Mono CrystalNumber of cells: 72Length: 1224mm/48.19"Width: 1047mm/41.22"Depth: 39.5mm/1.56"Weight: 17.0kg/37.5 lbType of Output Terminal: J-box with MC cablesCertificationsIEC CertifiedUL Listing, Class C Fire RatingTÜ– Safety Class II CertifiedCEC Rating: 134.3Warranty: 25 yearsNote: Minimum order of 4 panels. These panels must ship via truck due to size. Please call for a shipping quote and to order. There is a quantity price break if you are ordering 20+ panels.Isofoton Solar PanelsIsofoton is the leading solar panel manufacturer in Europe and their panels are now available in the USA. Since its founding in 1981, Isofoton has grown to become the leading supplier of PV in Europe and is the 8th largest PV manufacturer in the world. Their steadfast commitment to research and development has lead to the development of a reliable, proven mono-crystalline cell that is then chemically textured with an anti-reflective layer and finally trimmed almost square for maximum power density. The finished cells are covered with tempered, anti-relective glass that maximizes light transfer, providing a high quality finished module that meets the highest level of compliance with ISO, TUV, CE, and UL standards for photovotaic products. Approved by the California Energy Commission.Isofoton 150 Watt24 Volt Solar Panel$665.00
36 PV solar panel specifications d.Blue is ideal for installation on all types of buildings, from residential to large scale commercial systems. The stylish dark blue cells, combined with black panel frames, allow the panels to blend in with the buildings architecture while producing energy at exceptional efficiencies.The d.Blue panels are available in 190-watt, 170-watt and 125-watts panels. All of these feature Multi-Contact output cables, a heavy-duty box-style anodized aluminum frame, and an industry-high 25 year power output warranty.Applications* Residential roof top system* Large commercial grid tie system* Water Pumping Systems* High Voltage stand alone systemsSpecifications:Max Power: 190 WattsMax Voltage: 26.1 VoltsMax Current: 7.28 AmpsDimensions (LxWxD): 56.2"x39"x1.4"Weight: 40.7 poundsKyocera Solar PanelsKyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar PanelKyocera KC190GT, 190 Watt Solar Panel$879.00KYOCERA has perfected its new surface treatment technology and is introducing it on a new line of panels named d.Blue, for its dark blue color.The newly developed treatment method processes multi-crystalline silicon cells in order to produce a surface texture that minimizes surface reflectance and maximizes output. The result is a maximum conversion efficiency of 15%, one of the highest conversion efficiencies in the polycrystalline panel industry.
37 PV solar panel specifications Independently Certified* The ASE-270/DGF-50 is independently certified to meet IEEE 1262, IEC and UL 1703 standards* It is also the only panel in the industry to receive a UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Class A fire ratingFlexible VersionsA variety of wiring and framing optionsare available upon request.Electrical DataPower (max): 270 WattsVoltage: 49.5 VoltsCurrent: 5.45 AmpsOpen-circuit voltage: 60.0 VoltsShort-circuit Current: 6.1 AmpsDimensions and WeightsLength: 74.5"/ mmWidth: 50.5"/ mmWeight: 107 (+/- 5) lbs/46.6 (+/- 2) kgArea: ft sq/ 2.43 sq metersCharacteristic DataSolar cells per panel: 216Type of solar cell: Semi-crystalline solar cells (EFG process)Connections: 10 AWG single conductor, stranded copper with Multi-Contact connector. Junction box comes with 6 built-in bypass diodes.Certifications and WarrantyThe ASE-270-DGF/50 has been independently certified to IEC 1215 and IEEE 1262, UL 1703 (Class A Fire rating)The ASE-270-DGF-50 comes with a 20 year power warranty.RWE Schott Solar Panels ASE is possibly the finest module currently available on the market.315 watt, 300 watt and 285 watt modules. Prices start are $4.03/watt for cases of (20) modules. Call for availablity.
38 RWE Schott Solar Panels PV solar panel specificationsMore Reliability* Bypass diode protection for every 18 solar cells in series, thus minimizing power loss, and mitigating overheating/safety problems* Advanced encapsulation system ensures steady long-term panel performance by eliminating degradation associated with traditional EVA-encapsulated panels* A weather barrier system on both sides of the panel protects against tears, perforations, fire, electrical conductivity, delamination and moisture* Patented no-lead, high-reliability soldering system guarantees long life and ensures against environmental harm should the panel break or be discardedHigher Quality* Each of the panel's 216 individual semi-crystalline silicon cells is inspected and power matched to ensure consistent performance between panels* Every panel is tested utilizing a calibrated solar simulator to ensure that the electrical ratings are within the specified tolerance for power, voltage and current* Panel-to-panel wiring loss is factored into the panel's labeled electrical ratings by testing through the panel's cable/connector assembliesRWE Schott Solar PanelsASE-300-DGF/50,285 watt$1,334.00ASE-300-DGF/50, 300 Watt Solar Panel$1,404.00ASE-300-DGF/50,315 Watt Solar Panel$1,329.00
39 Schott BIPV - Photovoltaics with ASI® Glass Today, building integrated photovoltaic systems are able to provide:# Solar electricity# Light management# Comfort# Effective shading# Glare protection# Thermal management# Innovative architectureInsulated FacadeOpaque CladdingThe maximum size of ASI® Glass modules is1.2m x 2.4m (~4’ x 7’ 10”)
40 PV solar panel specifications The HIT 190 panel has a cell conversion efficiency of 18.5% and a panel conversion efficiency of 16.1% that is significantly higher than conventional SANYO solar cells.High conversion efficiency and lightweight design conserve space and weight. The outstanding conversion efficiency and high power output of the HIT 190 save approximately 20% of installation space. HIT 190 panels can be installed on narrow roof spaces which previously presented difficulties. In addition, with fewer solar panels, there is less weight on the roof.SANYO HIT 190 Specifications:Model Number: HIP-190BA3Max. Power (Pmax): 190 WattsMax. Power Voltage (Vpm): 54.8 VoltsMax. Power Current (Ipm): 3.47 AmpsOpen Circuit Voltage (Voc): 67.5 VoltsShort Circuit Voltage (Isc): 3.75 AmpsCell Conversion Efficiency: 18.5%Panel Conversion Efficiency: 16.1%Warranted Minimum (Pmin): WattsPTC Rating: WattsMax. System Voltage: 600 VoltsSeries Fuse: 15 AmpsTemp. Coefficient of Pmax (%/C): -0.3Dimensions: 51.9" x 35.2" X 1.4" (1319mm X 894mm x 35mm)Weight: 30.9 lbs. (14kg)Certificate: UL 1703Class C fire ratingHIT panels can withstand 1 inch diameter hailstones at 50 mph.Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel$975.00SANYO Solar PanelsSanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel
41 Sharp ND-N0ECU, 140 Watt Solar Panel PV solar panel specificationsSince 1959, Sharp has been harnessing the power of the sun to improve the quality of life. Today, we are the world's #1 manufacturer of solar cells. In fact, Sharp's high quality, Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems are used for everything from satellites to lighthouses, industrial applications to residential use.Sharp's solar energy systems take advantage of the natural, inexhaustible resource of sunlight to generate electricity. No environmentally harmful compounds, no fossil fuel pollution, no global warming. Just clean, safe, reliable solar energy for living.Sharp 208 Watt Solar Panel SHARP NT-185U1, 185 Watt Solar Panel$ $969.00SHARP NE-165U1,165 Watt Solar Panelprice: $727.00Sharp ND-167U1,167 Watt Solar Panel$779.00Sharp ND-N0ECU, 140 Watt Solar Panel$669.00Sharp ND-070ERU,70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle$429.00Sharp ND-070ELU,70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle$429.00
42 Left and right triangular modules PV solar panel specificationsFeaturesLeft and right triangular modules offer greater flexibility and greater integration for roofline aestheticsHigh-power module (70W) using 21 square multi-crystal silicon solar cells with 13.44% cell conversion efficiencyBypass diode minimizes the power drop caused by shadeBlack anodized aluminum frame and "L" hook design located along frame perimeter for easy integration with residential sytem mounting hardwareWater white, tempered glass, EVA laminate, and a weather-proof film yield long-life modules while enhancing cell performanceNominal 7 VDC output is ideal for residential system applicationsManufactured in ISO 9001 certified facilities25-year limited warranty on power outputElectrical CharacteristicsCell: Multi-crystal siliconNo. of Cells and Connections: 21 in seriesOpen Circuit Voltage (Voc): VoltsMax. Power Voltage (Vpm): 9.98 VoltsShort Circuit Current (Isc): 7.81 AmpsMaximum Power Current (Ipm): 7.02 AmpsMaximum Power (Pm): 70 WattsMinimum Power (Pm): 63 WattsEncapsulated Solar Cell Efficiency: 13.44%PTC Rating (W): WattsMaximum System Voltage: 600VDCSeries Fuse Rating: 15 AmpsType of Output Terminal: Lead Wire with MC ConnectorMechanical CharacteristicsDimensions: 45.86" x 38.98" x 1.81" (1165mm x 990mm x 46mm)Weight: 26.9lbs/12.2kgPacking Configuration: 2 pcs per cartonSharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left TriangleLeft and right triangular modulesSharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle
43 PV solar panel specifications Shell Solar PanelsShell Solar SQ175-PC, 175 Watt Solar Panel$805.00Shell Solar SQ165-PC, 165 Watt Solar PanelYour price: $779.00Shell Solar 85-P, 85 Watt Solar PanelShell Solar 80-P, 80 Watt Solar Panel$499.00
44 PV solar panel specifications Shell ST40, 40 Watt CIS Thin Film Solar PanelShell ST40, 40 Watt 12 Volt Thin Film Solar PanelThe Shell ST40 solar panel is composed of a monolithic structure of series connected Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) based solar cells. It can generate a peak power of 40 watt at 16.6 volts. The Shell ST40 solar panel has been designed for rural and industrial applications.The Shell Solar CIS/thin film modules deliver high power and reliable performance in all operational conditions backed by a 10 year warranty. The range is particularly suitable for low light level environments and where uniform appearance and aesthetics is important.Benefits* Exceptional performance under low light conditions, shade and high temperature tolerance that offers reliable power in adverse or changeable conditions.* Class leading efficiency and stable output power delivering reliable high performance for many years.* Highly transparent tempered glass delivering more power and ensuring high impact resistance and protection against hail, snow, ice, and storms.* Uniform appearance ideal for applications where aesthetics are an important factor.* 10 years research and over 3 years commercial manufacturing experience has been appllied to the development of our CIS thin-film range to ensure that our products have a long and reliable service life backed by a 10 year warranty.Qualifications and Certificates* UL-Listing 1703* All Shell Solar Panels are produced in EN-ISO 9001 certified factoriesShell Solar PanelsShell ST40, 40 Watt Thin Film Solar Panel$276.00Junction BoxThe junction box provides a high quality, dust protected and splash proof IP44-rated housing. The housing contains a rigid connection block with screw terminals and by-pass diodes providing "hot spot" protection for the solar cells.Electrical CharacteristicsRated Power: 40 wattsPeak Power: 40 wattsPeak Power Voltage: 16.6 voltsPeak Power Current: 2.41 ampsOpen Circuit Voltage: 23.3 voltsShort Circuit Current: 2.68 ampsSeries Fuse Rating: 5 ampsMinimum Peak Power: 36 WattMechanical SpecificationsA torsion and corrosion-resistant anodized aluminum frame ensures dependable performance, even under harsh weather conditions. Pre-drilled mounting holes are provided for ease of installation.Dimensions (LxWxD): 50.9" x 12.9" x 1.3" (1293x328x35mm)Weight: 15.4lbs
45 PV solar panel specifications SunWize Solar PanelsSunWize OEM40, 40 Watt Solar Panel$269.00SunWize OEM20, 20 Watt Solar Panel$165.00SunWize SW90, 90 Watt Solar PaneSunWize OEM10, 10 Watt Solar Panel$115.00SunWize SW85, 85 Watt Solar Panel
46 UniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar Panel PV solar panel specificationsUniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar PanelHow are Panels Connected to an Electrical System?Each panel comes with 8 ft. of tinned wire with a 2-pin SAE-connector and is packaged with a 2 ft fused battery cable. An extension cable of 10 feet is also available. Typically the solar panel is connected directly to the battery. It can also be connected to any point on the electrical system where 12 volt is present. If a charge controller is used, it is placed in the line between the solar panel and the battery.Bypass diodes are connected across each cell, allowing the modules to produce power even when partially shaded. Blocking diodes are included within each potted junction box (edge connector) to prevent battery discharge into the module.The cell assembly is sealed in flexible an durable weather resistant polymers that provide longlife and high reliability.UniSolar FLX-32 Flexible 32 Watt Solar Panel$275.00SpecificationsRated power: 32 WattsBattery Voltage: 12 VoltsTypical Amp Hours/Day: 12Bypass Diode Included: YesBlocking Diode Included: YesLength: 55.77"Width: 16.7"Weight: 4.7 lbs.Cable Length: 8 ftWarranty on Power Output: 5 yr
47 PV solar panel specifications Unique and DurableThe unique design of the UNI-PAC™ features a lightweight construction without glass or fragile crystalline to break, crack, or add on extra weight. The tough nylon fabric covering allows the unit to be folded to a convenient book size, for easy storage and transport. The UNI-PAC™ 10 offers dual voltage charging for 12V and 24V, the UNI-PAC™ 15 and the UNI-PAC™ 30 are for 12V charging. The UNI-PAC™ was designed to meet military requirements for durability, performance and reliability. Tefzel (by DuPont) serves as a strong, long-lasting front cover. Individual solar laminates contain by-pass diodes, making the UNI-PAC™ solar chargers tolerant of severe shadow or partial covering. Charging rate and voltage can even be adjusted to meet specific needs.Dimensions & SpecificationsRated Power: 34.0 WattsOperating Voltage: 17.6 VoltsOperating Current: 1.9 AmpsOpen Circuit Voltage: 26.0 VoltsShort Circuit Current: 2.4 AmpsSize, Folded (LxWxH): 17" x 7" x 2"Size, Deployed: 55.9" x 33.9"Weight: 4.7 lbsUniSolar UNI-PAC Watt Foldable Flexible Panel$729.00UniSolar UNI-PAC Watt Foldable Flexible Panel$595.00
48 PV solar panel specifications Kaneka Solar Panels*Model GEA / GSANominal Power (W) 60OC Voltage (V) 92SC Current (A) 1.19Voltage in mpp (V) 67Current in mpp (A) 0.9Weight (kg) 13.7Dimensions (mm) 990x960x40Certifications and QualificationsGEA GSA- IEC61646- Safety Class II equipment- CE mark - UL Listed- CEC registeredKaneka 60 Watt Solar ModuleHighlights:* Thin-film amorphous silicon panel* Superior performance under high temperature* High shade tolerance* MC Connectors* Black frame* Dimensions 39" x 37.8"*25 Year Power Output WarrantyGEA/GSA PV module will maintain more than 80% of minimum rated power for 25 years (based on data from silicon PV modules installed over a month under conditions of 25ºC, A.M. 1.5 and 100mW / cm2).Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Modules$269.00
49 Yingli YL80 80 Watt Solar Module PV solar panel specificationsYingli YL80 80 Watt Solar ModuleYingli makes high efficiency polycrystalline solar modules. Power tolerance is a respectable 5% so you can be assured you will be receiving at least 95% of the wattage specified.Modules are made with tempered high transmission glass with antireflective coating, EVA encapsulant, TPT backsheet and aluminum frame with predrilled holes for mounting. Water proof junction box contains cord grip connectors, bypass diodes and barrel sleeve connector for use with special pinout connectors (available with 10’ USE 10 ga. below).Warranty is 25 years. Modules larger than 65 watts are packaged 2 per shipping box.
50 Iowa Thin Film Technologies PV solar panel specificationsR Rollable Solar ChargerBecause PowerFilm® integrated solar panels (thin film on plastic) are developed and manufactured with a proprietary roll-to-roll process, by Iowa Thin Film Technologies, they are truly rollable unlike other thin film technologies that are only somewhat flexible. PowerFilm® solar panels are monolithically integrated which eliminates the need for damage-prone manual connections of individual solar cells. PowerFilm® is made of silicon, a natural resource in abundant supply. Also PowerFilm® performs well in diverse enviroments, including hot sun, and does not suffer from wasted over-voltage. Cadmium Free.Direct Power12V systems can be directly powered with PowerFilm® Rollable Solar Panels. As with any solar technology, the solar panel power output must be greater than the power consumption of the 12V system.Technical SpecificationsOperating Voltage (V) 15.4Operating Current (Amps) 1.2Weight (lbs) 1.9Rolled Dimensions (in )) 12x4.25x4.5Unrolled Dimensions (in) 12x73Iowa Thin Film TechnologiesR Rollable Solar Charger$274.00
51 UTRF 168 Zomeworks Universal Tracker PV solar panel PERIPHIRALS specificationsZomeworks Universal TrackersUniversal* Track Rack Sizes:UTR Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTRK Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTR F Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTR F Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTR F Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTR F Sq. Ft. Module SpaceUTRF 168 Zomeworks Universal TrackerSix Sizes Fit AllThe Zomeworks Universal Rack System allows for almost limitless adjustment in both the east-west and north-south directions. Available in six standard sizes for holding 2 to 32 modules, Universal Track Racks are designed to fit all common photovoltaic modules, including ASE, Astro Power/PV, BP/Solarex, Evergreen, First Solar, Kyocera, Photowatt/Matrix, Sanyo, Sharp, Shell/Siemens/Arco, SunWize, UniSolar, and most other popular modules. This flexibility translates to faster delivery, better quality and overall economy.