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2.3 Carbon Compounds-Carbon and Carbos.

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Presentation on theme: "2.3 Carbon Compounds-Carbon and Carbos."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.3 Carbon Compounds-Carbon and Carbos

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15 Isomer Examples

16 Contrast Caraway and Spearmint

17 Isomers Caraway and Spearmint

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21 4 Types of Macromolecules Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids

22 Macromolecule or Polymer a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar subunits strung together

23 Polymer A large molecule (macromolecule) consisting of many smaller molecules (monomers) into chains

24 Monomers the subunits that serve as the building blocks

25 Polymerization Joining monomers to make a polymer LINK Animation of a Condensation PolymerizationAnimation of a Condensation Polymerization

26 Dehydration Synthesis A.K.A. polymerization

27 Dehydration Synthesis Start with small molecules (monomers), by removing water end with large molecules (polymers)

28 Dehydration Synthesis Monomers (small molecules) are linked together by a process that takes out a molecule of water to form a polymer (macromolecule).

29 Hydrolysis

30 Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis in which bonds are broken by the addition of water

31 Hydrolysis Start with large molecules (polymer) add water and end with small molecules (monomer)

32 Carbohydrates are Made Of: C : H : O 1 : 2 : 1 C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose

33 Carbohydrates “Sugars” Names for Carbohydrates end in –ose Monomers: monosaccharides

34 Carbohydrates Glucose (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide basic formula CH 2 O

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37 Monomer of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Simple sugar -main use in body: fuel EX: glucose - common galactose –milk sugar fructose – fruit sugar

38 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides-single sugars –the monomer of carbos Disaccharides-double sugars Polysaccharides-many sugars

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41 Disaccharides

42 Polysaccharide Chains of monosaccharides EX: starch is made of many glucose molecules

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44 Polysaccharide: many sugars

45 Polysaccharides are macromolecules with a few to 1000 monosaccharides linked together

46 Polysaccharides Storage Polysaccharides: starch (from plants) and glycogen (from animals) Structural Polysaccharides: chitin (in fungi cell walls and in exoskeleton of arthropods) and cellulose (in plant cell walls)

47 STARCH Made of glucose molecules Stores sugar

48 Starch Foods found in: Potatoes, wheat, corn, rice Found in plant roots

49 Glycogen ANIMAL STORAGE Made of excess sugar Found in animal livers and muscle cells Foods: meats

50 Glucose Glycogen

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52 Cellulose: plant cell walls stiff Us: good fiber Glucose polymer

53 Chitin Onion Cell Walls are of cellulose exoskeleton of insects, crabs

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55 Which is a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? A polysaccharide? cellulose chitin glucose glycogen sucrose starch

56 Which is a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? A polysaccharide? Cellulose P Chitin P Glucose M Glycogen M Sucrose D Starch P


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