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CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE COPD Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh.

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Presentation on theme: "CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE COPD Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE COPD Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh

2 COPD C hronic O bstructive P ulmonary D isease A progressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe

3 COPD: AN UMBRELLA TERM Umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases which include : Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Refractory (irreversible) asthma Severe bronchiectasis

4 OTHER NAMES FOR COPD Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD)

5 COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung ailment that is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow from the lungs. It is an under-diagnosed, life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible.

6 UNDERSTANDING COPD Critical to first understand normal lung function Image courtesy of The National Institute of health

7 LUNG STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION “Biological Science Freeman”, 2010

8 LUNGS WITH COPD Image courtesy of The National Institute of health

9 CAUSES Most cases of COPD occur as a result of long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways The most common irritant that causes COPD is cigarette smoke In rare cases, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may play a role in causing COPD

10 WHO IS AT RISK? People who smoke or are exposed to smoke People who have a family history of COPD are more likely to develop the disease if they smoke Long-term exposure to other lung irritants also is a risk factor for COPD Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries, where effective strategies for prevention and control are not always implemented or accessible.

11 SYMPTOMS breathlessness abnormal sputum (a mix of saliva and mucus in the airway) a chronic cough daily activities can become very difficult as the condition gradually worsens

12 DIAGNOSIS A simple diagnostic test called "spirometry“ measures how much air a person can inhale and exhale, and how fast air can move into and out of the lungs Spirometry can detect COPD long before its Symptoms appear.

13 TREATMENT COPD has no cure Quitting smoking is the most important step an individual can take to treat COPD Other treatments for COPD may include medicines, vaccines, pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab), oxygen therapy, and surgery

14 MANAGING COPD COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time A cold, the flu, or a lung infection may cause symptoms to intensify Prescription antibiotics may treat infections and other medicines, such as bronchodilators and inhaled steroids, can help facilitate breathing

15 MANAGING COPD Avoid lung irritants Get ongoing care Manage the disease and its symptoms Prepare for emergencies

16 COPD: STATISTICS The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 12 million adults have COPD, and another 12 million are undiagnosed or developing COPD Estimated that over 210 million people worldwide have COPD

17 COPD: STATISTICS COPD cost the U.S. economy about $32.1 billion, in direct and indirect costs in 2002 A person with COPD dies every four minutes in the U.S COPD will be the third leading cause of death in the U.S. by 2020

18 WHO RESPONSE Raise awareness about the global epidemic of chronic diseases Create more healthy environments, especially for poor and disadvantaged populations Decrease common chronic disease risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity Prevent premature deaths and avoidable disabilities from major chronic diseases

19 SOURCES The World Health Organization The COPD Foundation The US Department of Health and Human Services pd_WhatIs.html National Heart Lung and Blood Institute _breathe.htm Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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