Presentation on theme: "Paul Prunty The 7 Basic Quality Tools ~ The DMAIC Process Continuous Improvement and … To a hammer, everything’s a nail … How many tools do you have in."— Presentation transcript:
Paul Prunty The 7 Basic Quality Tools ~ The DMAIC Process Continuous Improvement and … To a hammer, everything’s a nail … How many tools do you have in your improvement tool kit ?
7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty Cause-and-effect diagram also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories.
Check sheet A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of data gathering purposes. 7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty
7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty Control charts Graphs used to study how a process changes over time
Flow Chart Visually shows sequential steps in a process using commonly accepted symbols. 7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty
7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty Histogram The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs.
7 Basic Quality Tools Pareto chart Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant. Paul Prunty
Scatter diagram Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship. 7 Basic Quality Tools Paul Prunty
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl DMAIC Process Model Paul Prunty DMAIC – What is it? The Quality Council of Indiana, in the QMC/OE Body of knowledge defines DMAIC as a process improvement tool and discusses it under management tools. GE summarized the DMAIC process steps as: Define the customer’s critical-to-quality issues and core business process Measure the performance of the core business process involved Analyze the data and determine root causes or improvement opportunities Improve the target process with creative solutions to fix and prevent problems Monitor the process to sustain the improvements
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Define Select and define project scope - what needs fixing - what are project goals and objectives Define customer critical characteristics / features - who is the customer (internal / external) - what product or service is provided to the customer Select team - champion - leader - members Develop improvement / implementation plan Create support infrastructure Define Phase Some other skills and tools Brainstorming Teaming Planning / Project Management Action Plans Run Chart / Trend Chart Paul Prunty
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Measure Understand the process - process map / flow chart - determine current performance - estimate capability of the process Identify critical process / product impacts - Key process input variables (KPIV) – the X’s - Key process output variables (KPOV) – the Y’s Determine measurement system reliability - conduct measurement system analysis (MSA) Determine key metrics Understand Cause and Effect Use selective control charting as a diagnostic Measure Phase Some other skills and tools Process Capability Study (Cp, Cpk) MSA Studies (GR & R, Anova) Run Chart / Trend Chart Paul Prunty
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Analyze Assess process variation Determine components of variation (multi-var charts) Determine the defect cause Identify critical process / control elements - products - features - process Assess process capability Determine potential improvement actions - conduct hypothesis tests - conduct ANOVA Analyze Phase Some other skills and tools Brainstorming Process Capability Study (Cp, Cpk) Statistical Analysis (e.g. DOE, Anova) 5 Why Root Cause Analysis Paul Prunty
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Improve Implement improvement actions Optimize the process Implement actions to reduce variability - target tolerancing - process controls - preventive / corrective actions Implement actions to eliminate defects - Special cause variation Improve Phase Some other skills and tools Action Plans Statistical Analysis (e.g. Cpk ) Statistical Analysis (e.g. DOE, Anova) Sample Plans Quality Control Plans Paul Prunty
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Monitor and control the process over time - control plans - control charts Mistake proof Reduce common cause (random) variation Rule of Thumb: Cp 2, Cpk 1.5 Control Phase Some other skills and tools Poka-yoke (mistake proof) Statistical Analysis (e.g. Cpk) SPC Sample Plans Control Plans PDCA (PDSA) Cycle Paul Prunty
References: 7 Basic Tools: Excerpted from Nancy R. Tague’s The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press, 2004, page 15. CMQ/OE Primer 2010, Quality Council of Indiana Learn More: The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, Tague, Nancy R. Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods, 2nd Edition, Breyfogle, Forrest W How many tools do you have in your quality tool kit ? Albert Einstein Who said: “The important thing is not to stop questioning.” “Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.” Paul Prunty Anything More?