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Urinary system Lab 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Urinary system Lab 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinary system Lab 7

2 Announcements Urinary system Lab Practical Week after Spring Break
Practical Review this Sunday 23rd at 3-5 pm

3 Functions of Urinary System
Kidneys carry out four functions Filter nitrogenous wastes, toxins, ions, etc. from blood to be excreted as urine. Regulate volume and chemical composition of blood (water, salts, acids, bases). Produce regulatory enzymes. Renin – regulates BP/ kidney function Erthropoeitin – stimulates RBC production from marrow. Metabolism of Vitamin D to active form.

4 Urinary System Two Kidneys Two Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra
Perform all functions except actual excretion. Two Ureters Convey urine from Kidneys to Urinary Bladder Urinary Bladder Holds Urine until excretion Urethra Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body

5 Complete System

6 Kidney general info Lie against posterior abdominal wall at level of T12-L3. Right kidney is lower than left kidney due to the shape of the liver. Lateral surface of kidney is convex while medial is concave. Concave side has a cleft – Renal Hilus Inside hilus is Renal sinus Where kidneys receive renal vessels and nerves.

7 Kidney External Anatomy
Average size – 12cm x 6cm x 3 cm Weights 150 grams or 5 oz Surrounded by three membranes (deep to superficial) Renal capsule – fibrous barrier for kidneys. Adipose capsule – fatty tissue designed for protection / stability. Renal fascia – dense fibrous CTP anchors kidneys/ adrenals/ membrane 1 and 2 to surroundings.

8 Kidney Anatomy Renal arteries and veins Renal cortex Renal medulla
Nephron Renal pyramids (6-10) Renal papilla Calyx (ces) Renal pelvis Ureter

9 Kidney- External Anatomy
Lateral surface- convex Medial is concave- Renal Hilum Opening to Kidney Renal Sinus Space within hilus Kidneys receive blood vessels and nerves.

10 Kidney Internal Anatomy I
Renal arteries and veins Bring blood in and out of kidney Renal cortex Outer layer of Kidney Renal medulla Inner layer of Kidney Nephron

11 Kidney Internal Anatomy II
Renal Pyramids Renal Columns Space between pyramids within the medula Renal Papilla Narrow end of pyramid Calyx (ces) Collecting tubes Renal Pelvis Collecting vessel prior to ureter

12 Human Kidney

13 Nephron Blood processing unit which serves to produce urine
1 million per kidney Consists of a glomerulus and tubules

14 Nephron: Vascular System
Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Capillary beds reabsorb in cortex Vasa recta Capillary beds reabsorb in medulla

15 Nephron Tubular system Glomerular Capsule Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle (nephron loop) Descending limb Ascending limb Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct

16 Nephron

17 Gross Anatomy Urinary system Kidney Nephron
Dynamic Human Gross Anatomy Urinary system Kidney Nephron

18 Urine Formation I Glomerular filtration
Water, ions, amino acids, and glucose get into capsular space from blood Proteins stay in blood – too big to leave capillaries.

19 Urine Formation II Proximal convoluted tubule and Peritubular capillary Na+ goes down gradient and brings glucose, amino acids, etc. back into blood stream (cotransport). Reabsorbs about 65% of filtrate.

20 Countercurrent Multiplication
Urine Formation III Countercurrent Multiplication in the Nephron Loop Descending limb Goes into medulla increasing salt gradient Water leaves Fluid concentrates Ascending limb Goes up toward cortex - decreasing salt gradient Na+ pumped out Fluid relatively diluted

21 Nephron Loop

22 Urine Formation IV Collecting duct Travels down into medulla
Water leaves tubule and enters blood Urine becomes concentrated and enters renal papilla ADH controls water channel ADH – Antidiuretic hormone

23 Collecting duct

24 Dynamic Human Urine Formation

25 Micturition Ureters Urinary Bladder 25 cm long
Enters on the floor of bladder Urinary Bladder Muscular sac on floor of pelvic cavity Muscle layer formed by detrusor muscle Average bladder volume is 500 ml Max capacity is ml

26 Micturition Urethra Conveys urine out of body
Female urethra – cm Opens into external urethral oriface Lies between vaginal oriface and clitoris Male urethra – 18 cm 3 regions Prostatic urethra – 2.5 cm Membranous urethra – 0.5 cm Penile urethra – 15 cm

27 Micturition Reflex Bladder with >= 200 ml of urine
Sensory input to parasympathetic system Contraction of detrusor muscle and relaxation of internal urethral sphincter Relaxation of external urethral sphincter

28 Micturition

29 Kidney stones A hard granule of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and protein. Form in renal pelvis and get lodged in pelvis or ureter. Caused by urinary tract infections, dehydration, pH imbalances, or an enlarged prostate gland. Treated with stone dissolving drugs, surgical removal, or lithotripsy (ultrasonic vibrations)

30 Visualizing the Urinary System Intravenous pyelography Ultrasound
Dynamic Human Visualizing the Urinary System Intravenous pyelography Ultrasound

31 Dissection Be able to identify layers of the kidney on human material
Be able to locate kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra on cat.

32 Next Week – Spring Break Week After - Practical II
Material over lymphatic, respiratory, and urinary systems Review Sunday (end of break) at 3-5pm Remember – some questions will be based on identifying structures on the cats.

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