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Life in the Ocean.

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Presentation on theme: "Life in the Ocean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life in the Ocean

2 Three Groups of Marine Life
Plankton – organisms that float near the ocean’s surface – mostly microscopic Phytoplankton: plantlike Zooplankton: animal-like

3 Three Groups of Marine Life
Nekton – free swimming organisms of the oceans (mammals, whales, dolphins, sea lions, fish). Most abundant in surface water

4 Three Groups of Marine Life
Benthos – organisms that live on the ocean floor in mud, sand & rock. crabs, sea stars, worms, coral, sponges, seaweed, clams

5 Benthic Environment The ecological zone of the ocean that includes the ocean floor and all the organisms that live on or in it Divided into different zones based on depth Intertidal Sublittoral Bathyal Abyssal Hadal

6 Intertidal Zone Located between the low- and high-tide limits
Is covered with water twice a day as the tides change The organisms that live in this zone must be able to breathe underwater and on land Must be able to keep from being washed out with the tide. Clams, oysters, barnacles, crabs, starfish, sea anemones


8 Sublittoral Zone Begins at the low-tide limit and extends to the edge of the continental shelf Depths reach to 200 m Temperature, water pressure, sunlight are fairly constant Most animals stay in the upper 100 m to reach the sunlight


10 Bathyal Zone Extends from edge of continental shelf to abyssal plain
200 m – 4,000 m Lack of sunlight = few plants Animals include: sponges, brachiopods, sea stars, echinoids, octopuses


12 Abyssal Zone Scientist know very little about this zone
Very deep and dark 4,000 and below – can reach 6,000 m Few animals/ no plants Some crabs, sponges, worms, sea cucumbers Live around hot-water vents & in extreme conditions


14 Hadal Zone The deepest benthic zone
Consists of deepest ocean floor and trenches Less is known about this zone than the abyssal zone Few animals: a type of sponge, a few worms, a type of clam


16 The Pelagic Environment
The environmental zone that includes the entire volume of water in the ocean and the marine organisms that live above the ocean floor Two major zones Neritic Zone Oceanic Zone

17 Neritic Zone Includes the volume of water that covers the continental shelf Warm, shallow zone Largest concentration of marine life Lots of sunlight Lots of benthos to serve as food Fish, plankton and marine mammals


19 Oceanic Zone Includes the volume of water that covers the entire sea floor except for the continental shelf In deeper parts, the temperature is colder and the pressure is greater Organisms spread out more Some animals include giant squid, whales


21 Resources

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