# Unit 1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD & VARIABLES. I. The goal of science  To INVESTIGATE! And UNDERSTAND! The natural world...  To explain events in the natural.

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Unit 1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD & VARIABLES

I. The goal of science  To INVESTIGATE! And UNDERSTAND! The natural world...  To explain events in the natural world  To use those explanations to make useful predictions

What does science study?  The NATURAL WORLD, the search for patterns and connections between events

II. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD  There is no one SCIENTIFIC METHOD. THERE ARE COMMON FEATURES IN HOW SCIENTISTS DO THEIR WORK.

Scientific Method 1. Question/problem 2. Background Research 3. Hypothesis 4. Experiment 5. Data and Analysis 6. Conclusion 7. Report

1. Formulate a Question or Problem  A realistic question  Needs to be measurable

2. Background Research  Inform yourself about the experiment  Inform the scientists of existing methods and materials.  Creates accountability and relevance.

3. Hypothesis  It is an educated guess as to how things work  Sometimes in an “if ____ then _____” format.  It explains the relationship of the independent variable on the dependent variable.  Must be testable by performing controlled experiment or by gathering more data!

Variables Independent (Manipulated) variable : the thing that we personally alter. Dependent (Responding) variable : the thing that we record/measure. Constant variable : anything that is not altered during the course of the experiment.

4. Experiment  Develop a detailed list of materials and procedures.  Define the independent and dependent variable and constants, along with Control group and Experimental Group  Multiple trials are important. Why?  Test experiment using proper safety materials. Document all observations carefully.

Observations QUALITATIVE vs. QUANTITATIVE

 QUALITATIVE:  Characteristics that cannot be measured or counted.  Color, shape, feel, taste, sound  QUANTITATIVE  Based on exact measurements  The room is 8 meters across.

5. Record and Analyze Data  Organize quantifiable data. Put in chart or graph.  Make it easy for people to see differences/similarities  State trends.  No conclusions should be drawn. Graphs should be easy to see.

6. Conclusion  Is the hypothesis accepted or rejected?  Can we answer the overall question?  Implications for future study.  Sources of error.  What did you learn overall? Was it fun?

7. Report and Repeat Experiment  Compile all work into a presentable form.  Have other people repeat and verify the experiment.

Hypothesis - GOOD OR BAD?  WHY?  Everyone that wears green is cool.

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