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4.3 Volumetric analysis Learning outcomes

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Presentation on theme: "4.3 Volumetric analysis Learning outcomes"— Presentation transcript:

1 4.3 Volumetric analysis Learning outcomes
To understand the apparatus used in volumetric analysis and correct titrimetric procedure.

2 Students should know the following key words:
Volumetric analysis,titration,standard and non standard solutions

3 Volumetric analysis A titration is a lab procedure where a measured volume of one solution (burette) is added to a known volume (flask) of another solution until the reaction is complete

4 Standard solutions A standard is a solution of precisely known concentration It must be available in a highly pure state It must be stable in air It must dissolve easily in water It should have a fairly high relative molecular wt It should under go a complete and rapid reaction

5 Non standard solutions
Sodium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from atmosphere HCl can produce chlorine gas in reactions and liberate hydrogen when exposed to air Nitric acid can act as an oxidising agent interfering with reactions Sulphuric acid absorbs water form the air

6 1 mole 2 moles 2 moles 1 mole 1 mole
Sodium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid Na2CO HCl  2NaCl H2O CO2 1 mole moles moles mole mole


8 Apparatus used Burette Volumetric flask Beaker Pipette Funnel
Indicator White tile

9 Burette titration procedures

10 Precautions when using equipment
Burette must be vertical, use and then remove funnel, check meniscus, rinse with de-ionised water and then given solution. In using a Pipette rinse with de-ionised water first and then with given solution. Check meniscus. Do not blow out remainder of liquid into flask and keep tip of pipette in contact with flask

11 Precautions Conical flask should not be rinsed with solution it is to contain and swirl In using a Volumetric flask the last few cm³ must be added so that the meniscus rest on calibration mark Invert stoppered flask to ensure solution is homogeneous/uniform

12 Why is a conical flask, rather than a beaker, used in the experiment?
To allow easy mixing of the contents, by swirling.

13 Why is the funnel removed from the burette after adding the acid solution?
So that drops of solution from the funnel will not fall into the burette.

14 In using a burette, why is it important (a) to rinse it with a little of the solution it is going to contain. (b) to clamp it vertically. (c) to have the part below the tap full?

15 Solution (a) Rinsing To remove any residual water, and so avoid dilution of the acid solution when it is poured into the burette.

16 Solution (b) clamp vertically
To enable the liquid level to be read correctly

17 Solution (c) Full tap To ensure that the actual volume of liquid delivered into the conical flask is read accurately.

18 The following procedures were carried out during the titration: The sides of the conical flask were washed down with deionised water. The conical flask was frequently swirled or shaken. Give one reason for carrying out each of these procedures.

19 To ensure that all of the acid added from the burette can react with the base.
To ensure complete mixing of the reactants

20 Why is a rough titration carried out?
To find the approximate end-point. This information enables the subsequent titrations to be carried out more quickly.

21 Why is more than one accurate titration carried out?
To minimise error by getting accurate readings within 0.1 cm³ of each other.

22 Calculation example Volume of acid Va (cm3) is the titration figure from burette The concentration of acid is Ca (mol) na is the mol of full balanced equation per litre Volume of base is Vb (cm³ ). Usually placed in the conical flask. Cb is the concentration of the base na is the mol of full balanced per litre

23 Calculations USE FORMULA Va. Ca = Vb. Cb na nb Va = 37 cm³
Ca is unknown na = 2 Vb = 25 cm³ Cb = 0.1 mol nb = 1

24 Va. Ca = Vb. Cb na nb 37 cm³ × Ca = cm³ × 0.1mol Ca = 25 × 2 × = mol/L 37

25 EXAM QUESTIONS Look out for dilution factors e.g vinegar
Choice of indicator Type of vol flask given 1L OR 250 cm³ as you have to adjust in your calculations Take titre reading from burette and given vol of solution is taken from conical flask USE FORMULA Va. Ca = Vb. Cb na nb

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