Presentation on theme: "Overview of HIV & AIDS in Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of HIV & AIDS in Africa Dr Flavia SenkubugeSpecialist Public Health MedicineUniversity of Pretoria28 February 2011
2 Introduction HIV&AIDS remains of Public Health concern in Africa Significant strides made but much still to be achieved
3 Some statisticsSub-Saharan Africa- more heavily affected by HIV&AIDS compared to any other region of the world:22.5 million people living with HIV in the region.2009 around 1.3 million people died from AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa1.8 million people became infected with HIV14.8 million children have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS
4 Consequences far reaching! Consequences of the AIDS epidemic are social and economic in:health sectorEducationIndustryAgricultureTransporthuman resources and the economy in general
5 The triple challengeProviding health care, antiretroviral treatment, and support to people with HIV-related illnesses.Reducing the annual toll of new HIV infectionsCoping with the impact of AIDS deaths on national development, orphans and other survivors and communities.
6 The prevalences in Africa HIV prevalence rates and the numbers of people dying from AIDS vary between African countries:Somalia and Senegal - HIV prevalence is under 1% of the adult populationNamibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe % of adults are infected with HIVSouth Africa the HIV prevalence %Exceeding 20% Botswana (24.8%), Lesotho (23.6%) , Swaziland (25.9%).
7 The prevalences in Africa Cameroon HIV prevalence - 5.3%Gabon - 5.2%Nigeria HIV prevalence - (3.6%) compared to the rest of Africa BUT 3.3 million people living with HIVHIV prevalence in East Africa more than 5% in Uganda , Kenya, TanzaniaRates of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have peaked in the late 1990sHIV prevalence declined slightly, although remains at high level.
8 Impact HIV&AIDS in Africa Life expectancy:Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa yearsHouseholds:Loss of incomeHome based careOrphansHealthcare:Increased demand- strainAffecting health care workers
9 Impact HIV&AIDS in Africa SchoolsAffected severelyPlay role in education and support of HIVProductivity:Labour (15-49)– slow of economyReplacement due to ill-healthEconomic growth and developmentSeverely affected therefore affecting Africa’s ability to cope
10 HIV PreventionLarge scale HIV prevention initiatives – reduce scale of epidemics e.g Senegal, Uganda, Kenya, Burkina fasoCondom use and 2005, eight out of eleven countries in sub-Saharan Africa reported an increase in condom use.Consideration (condoms)is cultural beliefs and norms and desire to have childrenDistribution of condoms to countries in sub-Saharan Africa has also increased: in 2004 the number of condoms provided to this region by donors was the equivalent of 10 for every man
11 HIV PreventionProvision of VCT – awareness of status leads to prevention in transmission and possible accesess to treatment ,care and support e.g Burkina Faso, Kenya, Tanzania, MalawiMother-to-child transmission of HIV,000 children in sub-Saharan Africa became infected with HIVWithout interventions, there is a 20-45% chance that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus on to her childWith antiretroviral drugs, this risk can be significantly reduced.
12 Treatment and careAntiretroviral drugs (ARVs) - significantly delay the progression of HIV to AIDS and allow people living with HIV to live relatively normal, healthy livesPoor health systems – reduced deliveryNot enough health care workers4 in 10 not receiving ARVsSuccessnumber of people receiving ARVs in Africa doubled in aloneend of 2009, almost 4 million people in Africa were receiving antiretroviral treatment
13 Treatment and care Initiatives: VCT Nutrition Follow up counselling World Health Organisation (WHO) initiated the ‘3 by 5’ programme - three million people in developing countries on ARVs by the end of 2005.Latest international target, ‘All by 2010’- universal access to treatment by 2010.VCTNutritionFollow up counsellingProtection from stigma and discriminationTreatment of STIPrevention and treatment of opportunistic infection
14 Way forward International support Domestic commitment Increased fundingDomestic commitmentIncreased domestic expenditureReducing stigma and discriminationEmpowering women and girlsHOW FAR IS YOUR COUNTRY ( DISCUSSION) – 15 mins
15 ConclusionSustained and committed efforts are necessarily not only from international partners but from countries themselves if the fight against HIV& AIDS is to be won!
17 References UNAIDS (2010) 'UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic' WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF (2010) 'Towards universal access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector'UNAIDS (2006) 'Report on the global AIDS epidemic' Chapter 7: Treatment and careThe Global Fund (March 2009), 'Scaling up for impact: Results report'Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator, U.S. Department of State (2009, May), 'Making a difference: funding'Lu Chunling et al (2010, April 9th) 'Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national systematic analysis' Lancet 975(9723)International AIDS Society (2010) 'Universal Access: Rights Here, Right Now'UNAIDS (2008) 'Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic'UNICEF (2009), ‘Preventing HIV with young people: the key to tackling the epidemic’