Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Climate, Environment, and Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3: Climate, Environment, and Resources pp
2 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate The short-term changes in the air for a given place and time.Temperature and precipitation from hour to hour or day to dayA region’s average weather conditions over a long periodThe expected weather for a place based on data and experience
3 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate Weight of airCold air is heavier than warm air.When air cools, it gets heavier and sinks.When air warms, it gets lighter and rises.As warm air rises, cooler air moves in to take its place, creating wind.The rising, sinking, and flowing of air creates Earth’s prevailing wind patterns.At the equator, hot air rises and flows toward the poles.At the poles, cold air sinks and flows toward the equator.Earth’s rotation causes prevailing winds to curve east or west.Prevailing winds are winds that blow in the same direction over large areas of Earth. Prevailing winds can make a region warmer or colder and drier or wetter.
4 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate Ocean currents—large streams of surface seawater driven by winds—move heat around Earth.Carry warm or cool water to different areasWater’s temperature affects air temperature near it.Large bodies of water, such as an ocean or sea, also affect climate.Water heats and cools more slowly than land does.Large bodies of water make the temperature of the land nearby milder.The place where two air masses of different temperatures or moisture content meet is a front.Can produce rain, snow, thunderstorms, and blizzards.
5 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate ThunderstormsTornadoesProduce rain, lightning, and thunderMost common in spring and summerSmall, rapidly twisting funnel of air that touches the groundCan be destructive and deadly
6 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate BlizzardsHurricanes and TyphoonsProduce strong winds and large amounts of snowMost common during winterLarge, rotating storms that form over tropical waters in the Atlantic Ocean (hurricanes) or Pacific Ocean (typhoons).Produce drenching rains, strong winds, and storm surgesLargest, most destructive storms
7 Ch. 3 Section 1: Weather and Climate Mountains can influence an area’s climate by affecting both temperature and precipitation.Temperature decreases with elevation, the height on Earth’s surface above sea level.Mountains also create wet and dry areas.Air blowing against mountains is forced to rise.As the air rises, it cools and precipitation falls.This effect produces a rain shadow, a dry area on the mountainside facing away from the direction of the wind.
8 Ch. 3 Section 2: World Climates Earth is divided into five general climate zones.Tropical—occur near the equator, in low latitudesTemperate—occur about halfway between the equator and the poles, in the middle latitudesPolar—occur near the poles, in the high latitudesDry—occurs at many different latitudesHighland—occurs at many different latitudesGeographers divide some climate zones into more specific climate regions.
9 Tropical climate zones are wet and warm Humid Tropical RegionTropical Savanna RegionAt the equatorWarm, muggy and rainy year-roundTemperatures average 80F.Rainfall ranges from 70 to 450 inches.Some areas have monsoons, seasonal winds that bring either dry or moist air.Can support lush tropical rain forests that host a great diversity of plant and animal lifeNorth and south away from the equatorLong, hot, dry season followed by short periods of rainTemperatures are hot in the summer, cooler in the winter.Can support savannas—areas of tall grasses and scattered trees and shrubs
10 Dry climate zones receive little or no rain Desert Climate RegionSteppe Climate RegionEarth’s hottest and driest climateReceive less than 10 inches of rain a yearTemperatures can reach as high as 130F.Only very hardy plants and animals can live in these conditions.Semidry grasslands or prairies—called steppesOften border desertsReceive slightly more rain than desertsShort grasses are most common plants, but shrubs and trees grow along streams and rivers.
11 Temperate Climate Zones Temperate ClimatesMild and tend to have four seasonsWarm or hot summersCool or cold wintersOccur in the middle latitudes, the regions halfway between the equator and the poles
12 Temperate Climate Zones Mediterranean Climate RegionHumid Subtropical Climate RegionSunny, pleasant climate occurring mainly in coastal areasSummers hot, dry, and sunny; winters mild and somewhat wetOccurs along east coasts near the tropicsSummers are hot and muggy; winters are mildStorms occur year-round.
13 Temperate Climate Zones Marine West Coast Climate RegionHumid Continental Climate RegionOccurs on west coasts where winds carry moisture in from the seasMild temperatures year-roundOccurs closer to the poles, in the upper-middle latitudesFour distinct seasons
14 Polar climate zones are cold and dry Subarctic Climate RegionTundra Climate RegionOccurs mainly in Northern hemisphere south of Arctic OceanWinters are long and bitterly cold; summers short and coolBelow freezing half the yearCoastal areas along the Arctic OceanLong, bitterly cold wintersIn some parts is permafrost, or permanently frozen layers of soil
15 Polar climate zones are cold and dry Ice Cap Climate RegionNorth and South polesTemperature lows of more than -120FSnow and ice remain year-round, but little precipitation
16 Highland Climate Zone Found on mountains Includes polar climates plus others; several climates in oneAs you go up a mountain, temperatures drop and plant life grows sparser.
17 Ch. 3 Section 3: Natural Environments Plants and animals live where they are suited to the environment, or surroundings.Factors such as temperature, rainfall, and soil conditions limit options of where they can live.All plants and animals are adapted to specific environments.Ecosystem—a group of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival and the environment in which they liveFormed from interconnections between living things and the environmentCan be any size and can occur wherever air, water, and soil support life
18 Ch 3 Section 3: Natural Environments Soils help determine what plants will grow and how well.Fertile soils are rich in minerals and humus, decayed plant or animal matter.Support abundant lifeSoils can lose fertility in many ways.ErosionPlanting the same crops over and overWhen soil becomes worn out, it cannot support as many plants.Can lead to desertification, the spread of desert-like conditions
19 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources A natural resource is any material in nature that people use and value.Some are used as is.Some are changed to make something new.
20 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources Types of Natural ResourcesManaging Natural ResourcesRenewable resources are resources Earth replaces naturally.Nonrenewable resources are resources that cannot be replaced; they will run out one day.People must manage resources to ensure they will be available in the future.Deforestation, the clearing of trees, is a result of lack of management.Reforestation, planting trees to replace lost forestland, works to prevent resource loss.
21 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources Nonrenewable ResourcesRenewable ResourcesMost energy we use comes from fossil fuels, nonrenewable resources that formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.Coal—pollutes the air; used mainly to create electricity at power plantsPetroleum, or oil—used to make fuels and other productsNatural gas—cleanest-burning fossil fuel; used mainly for heating and cookingWill not run outGenerally better for the environmentHydroelectric power—the production of electricity from waterpower—is the main alternative to fossil fuels.Wind is used to power wind turbines that create electricity.Solar power and geothermal energy—heat from within Earth—can heat water for homes and be turned into electricity.
22 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources Nuclear EnergyObtained by splitting atoms, small particles of matterUses the metal uranium, so some consider it a nonrenewable resourceProduces dangerous wastes that must be stored for thousands of years before they are safeAccidents at nuclear power plants have terrible effects.
23 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources Mineral resources include metals, salt, rocks, and gemstones.Minerals are nonrenewable, and therefore need to be conserved.Recycling can make the supply of mineral resources last longer.
24 Ch. 3 Section 4: Natural Resources The natural resources available to people affect their lifestyles and needs.People in areas with many natural resources sometimes have more choices on ways to dress, eat, live, travel, and entertain themselves.People in areas with fewer natural resources will likely have fewer choices and different needs.Availability of natural resources affects countries’ economies.The many resources available in the United States have helped it become one of the world’s wealthiest economies.Countries with few natural resources often have weak economies.Some countries have only one or two valuable resources but few others.