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The Periodic Table Periodic Properties.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table Periodic Properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table Periodic Properties

2 Atomic Size Atomic size: the radius of an atom (distance from nucleus to electron cloud) is considered. Measured in angstroms (A) : 1 cm = 1x108 A Periodic Trend: Atomic size within a group increases and decreases as atomic number increases. Atomic size increases Atomic size increases

3 Ionic Size Some elements tend to gain or lose electrons to form ions. Metals lose electrons and form positive ions called cations. Nonmetals gain electrons and form negative ions called anions. Fe2+ Iron has a 2+ charge (oxidation number) because it lost 2 electons.

4 Ionic Size Periodic Trend:
Cations are smaller than original atom. Losing electrons means the nucleus has a greater attraction for electrons remaining. Anions are bigger than original atom. Gaining electrons means the nucleus has less attraction for a greater number of electrons.

5 Learning Check For each of the following sets of atoms and ions, decide which is the smallest. a.  Na, Na+ b.  Cl, Cl- c.  Na+, Cl- d.  H+, H, H- e.  Fe2+, Fe3+ f.  F-, Ne, Na+

6 Classwork Textbook p 255 #1,2 p # 3,4 p 266 # 19

7 Octet Rule States that atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to obtain a full set of eight valence electrons to become stable (exception elements in period 1) s and p sublevels are filled Ex. Sodium atom, Na ion 1s22s22p63s1 Fluorine atom, F ion 1s22s22p5

8 Ionization energy Energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
Measured when element is in gaseous state. First ionization energy: energy required to remove first electron from the highest occupied energy level. Measured in kJ/mol Some elements have second, third… ionization energy, meaning they can lose more than one electron forming positive ions.

9 Trends in ionization energy
Ionization energy increases Ionization energy increases

10 Trends in ionization energy
Ionization energy increases within a period. As the number of protons increases, the nuclear force increases making harder to remove an electron. Ionization energy decreases within a group. As the size of the atom increases, nuclear force has a smaller effect on electrons on highest energy level. Ionization energy increases Ionization energy increases

11 Electronegativity Is the ability of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound. Noble gases are omitted because they don’t form many compounds. Most electronegative element is Fluorine Least electronegative element is cesium

12 Trends in electronegativity
Electronegativity increases Electronegativity increases

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