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Chapter 13 Solutions Molarity

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**Molarity (M) A concentration that expresses the**

moles of solute in 1 L of solution Molarity (M) = moles of solute 1 liter solution

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**Units of Molarity 2.0 M HCl = 2.0 moles HCl 1 L HCl solution**

6.0 M HCl = moles L HCl solution

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**Math Problems Molarity is a conversion factor 3 types of M problems**

if you know the molarity 1 - You can determine the # of moles (or grams) solute in a given volume of solution. 2 - You can calculate the vol of solution that contains a specific # of moles solute if you know the molarity 3 If given the moles (grams) solute and vol of solution determine the molarity

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**Molarity Calculation NaOH is used to open stopped sinks, to treat**

cellulose in the making of nylon, and to remove potato peels commercially. If 4.0 g NaOH (mm = 40.0 g/mol) are used to make 500. mL of NaOH solution, what is the molarity (M) of the solution? 1 - calc the moles solute Mol = g/mm 2 - Determine L of solution L = mL/1000 3 - M = mol solute/L solution

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**Calculating Molarity 1. 4.0 g NaOH x 1 mol NaOH = 0.10 mol NaOH**

mL x 1 L = L 1000 mL mol NaOH = mol NaOH 0.500 L L = M NaOH

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Learning Check M1 A KOH solution with a volume of 400 mL contains 2 mole KOH. What is the molarity of the solution? 1) 8 M 2) 5 M 3) 2 M

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Learning Check M1 A KOH solution with a volume of 400 mL contains 2 moles of KOH. What is the molarity of the solution? 2) 5 M M = 2 mole KOH = 5 M 0.4 L

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Learning Check A glucose solution with a volume of 2.0 L contains 72 g glucose (C6H12O6). If glucose has a molar mass of 180. g/mole, what is the molarity of the glucose solution? 1 - Determine moles of solute (glucose) 2 - Divide by L solution 1) 0.20 M 2) 5.0 M 3) 36 M

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Solution A glucose solution with a volume of 2.0 L contains 72 g glucose (C6H12O6). If glucose has a molar mass of 180. g/mole, what is the molarity of the glucose solution? 1) 72 g x 1 mole = mol = M 180. g L

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**Molarity Conversion Factors**

A solution is a 3.0 M NaOH. Write the molarity in the form of conversion factors that relates vol of solution to # of mol solute 3.0 moles NaOH and 1 L NaOH soln 1 L NaOH soln moles NaOH

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Learning Check Stomach acid is a 0.10 M HCl solution. How many moles of HCl are in 1500 mL of stomach acid solution? 1 - determine L of solution 2 - convert from L to moles with molarity 1) 15 moles HCl 2) moles HCl 3) moles HCl

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Solution 3) mL x L = L 1000 mL 1.5 L x mole HCl = 0.15 mole HCl 1 L (Molarity is a conversion factor)

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Learning Check How many grams of KCl are present in 2.5 L of 0.50 M KCl? 1 - convert from L to moles solute, KCl 2 - convert moles to grams of KCl 1) 1.3 g 2) 5.0 g 3) 93 g

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Solution 3) 2.5 L x mole x g KCl = 93 g KCl 1 L mole KCl

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Learning Check M5 How many liters of stomach acid, which is 0.10 M HCl, contain 0.15 mole HCl? 1 - Convert from mol to L with molarity 1) L 2) L 3) L

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**Solution M5 0.15 mol HCl x 1 L soln 0.10 mol HCl (Molarity inverted)**

2) 0.15 mol HCl x 1 L soln 0.10 mol HCl (Molarity inverted) = L HCl

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Learning Check M6 How many grams of NaOH are required to prepare 400. mL of 3.0 M NaOH solution? 1 - Deter L of solution 2 - Convert L to moles with molarity 3 - Convert mol to grams with molar mass 1) 12 g 2) 48 g 3) 300 g

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Solution 2) mL x 1 L = L 1000 mL 0.400 L x 3.0 mol NaOH x g NaOH 1 L mol NaOH (molarity) (molar mass) = 48 g NaOH

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