Presentation is loading. Please wait. # Atomic Number and Mass Number

## Presentation on theme: "Atomic Number and Mass Number"— Presentation transcript:

Atomic Number and Mass Number
The Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isotopes

Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements
Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds

Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass
Electron e Proton p Neutron n

Location of Subatomic Particles
10-13 cm electrons protons neutrons 10-8 cm nucleus

Atomic Number Counts the number of protons in an atom

Periodic Table Represents physical and chemical behavior of elements
Arranges elements by increasing atomic number Repeats similar properties in columns known as chemical families or groups

Periodic Table 11 Na

Atomic Number on the Periodic Table
11 Na Atomic Number Symbol

All atoms of an element have the same number of protons
11 Na 11 protons Sodium

Learning Check AT 1 State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen 1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons B. Sulfur 1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protons C. Barium 1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protons

Solution AT 1 State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen 2) 7 protons B. Sulfur 2) 16 protons C. Barium 3) 56 protons

Number of Electrons An atom is neutral The net charge is zero
Number of protons = Number of electrons Atomic number = Number of electrons

Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Atomic Symbols atomic number 11 Show the mass number and atomic number
Give the symbol of the element mass number 23 Na sodium-23 atomic number 11

16 31 65 8 15 30 More Atomic Symbols O P Zn 8 p+ 15 p+ 30 p+
O P Zn 8 p p p+ 8 n 16 n 35 n 8 e e e-

Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers Isotopes of chlorine 35Cl 37Cl chlorine chlorine - 37

Questions 2 Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 12C C 14C #P _______ _______ _______ #N _______ _______ _______ #E _______ _______ _______

Solutions 2 6 6 6 12C 13C 14C #P __6___ _ 6___ ___6___
#P __6___ _ 6___ ___6___ #N __6___ _ _7___ ___8___ #E __6___ _ 6___ ___6___

Questions 3 An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.
A. Number of protons in the zinc atom 1) ) ) 65 B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope with 37 neutrons? 1) ) ) 67

Solutions 3 An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.
A. Number of protons in the zinc atom 1) 30 B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom 2) 35 C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope with 37 neutrons? 3) 67

Questions 4 Write the atomic symbols for atoms with the following:
A. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- ___________ B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- ___________ C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- ___________

Solutions 4 B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- 37Cl 17 47 16O A. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- 8
C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- 107Ag 47

Questions 5 16 14 14 An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons.
A. Its atomic number is 1) ) ) 34 B. Its mass number is C. The element is 1) Si 2) Ca 3) Se D. Another isotope of this element is 1) 34X 2) 34X 3) 36X

Solutions 5 14 An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons.
A. It has atomic number 1) 14 B. It has a mass number of 3) 34 C. The element is 1) Si D. Another isotope of this element would be 3) 36X 14

Masses of Atoms A scale designed for atoms gives their small atomic masses in atomic mass units (amu) An atom of 12C was assigned an exact mass of amu Relative masses of all other atoms was determined by comparing each to the mass of 12C An atom twice as heavy has a mass of amu. An atom half as heavy is 6.00 amu.

Na 22.99 Atomic Mass Listed on the periodic table
Gives the mass of “average” atom of each element compared to 12C Average atom based on all the isotopes and their abundance % Atomic mass is not a whole number

Questions 6 Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): A. calcium __________ B. aluminum __________ C. lead __________ D. barium __________ E. iron __________

Solution AT6 Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): A. calcium _40.1 amu _ B. aluminum _27.0 amu _ C. lead _207.2 amu_ D. barium _137.3 amu_ E. iron _55.8 amu__

Calculating Atomic Mass
Percentage (%) abundance of isotopes Mass of each isotope of that element Weighted average = mass isotope1(%) + mass isotope2(%) + …

Atomic Mass of Magnesium
Isotopes Mass of Isotope Abundance 24Mg = 24.0 amu % 25Mg = amu % 26Mg = amu % Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.3 amu Mg 24.3

Questions 7 Gallium is a metallic element found in small lasers used in compact disc players. In a sample of gallium, there is 60.2% of gallium-69 (68.9 amu) atoms and 39.8% of gallium-71 (70.9 amu) atoms. What is the atomic mass of gallium?

Solutions 7 Atomic mass Ga = 69.7 amu
68.9 amu x = amu for 69Ga 100 Ga-71 (%/100) 70.9 amu x = amu for 71Ga Atomic mass Ga = amu

Finding An Isotopic Mass
A sample of boron consists of 10B (mass 10.0 amu) and 11B (mass 11.0 amu). If the average atomic mass of B is 10.8 amu, what is the % abundance of each boron isotope?

Assign X and Y values: X = % 10B Y = % 11B Determine Y in terms of X X Y = 100 Y = X Solve for X: X (10.0) (100 - X )(11.0) = Multiply through by 100 10.0 X X =

Collect X terms 10.0 X X = - 1.0 X = -20 X = = % 10B - 1.0 Y = X % 11B = % = 80% 11B

Questions 8 Copper has two isotopes 63Cu (62.9 amu) and 65Cu (64.9 amu). What is the % abundance of each isotope? (Hint: Check periodic table for atomic mass) 1) 30% 2) 70% 3) 100%

Solutions 8 2) 70% Solution 62.9X + 6490 = 64.9X = 6350 -2.0 X = -140
2) 70% Solution 62.9X = 64.9X = 6350 -2.0 X = -140 X = 70%

Download ppt "Atomic Number and Mass Number"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google