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Atomic Structure Timeline

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Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure Timeline"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atomic Structure Timeline
Use the following information to complete the lecture handout. On tomorrow’s quiz, you will be expected to… draw the atomic models match scientists to their experiments and discoveries place the models in chronological order

2 Democritus (400 B.C.) Proposed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles Not based on experimental data Greek: atomos

3 Alchemy (next 2000 years) Mixture of science and mysticism.
Lab procedures were developed, but alchemists did not perform controlled experiments like true scientists.

4 John Dalton (1807) British Schoolteacher Billiard Ball Model
based his theory on others’ experimental data Billiard Ball Model atom is a uniform, solid sphere

5 John Dalton Dalton’s Four Postulates
1. Elements are composed of small indivisible particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. 3. Atoms of different elements combine together in simple proportions to create a compound. 4. In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, but not changed.

6 Henri Becquerel (1896) Discovered radioactivity Three types:
spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus Three types: alpha () - positive beta () - negative gamma () - neutral

7 J. J. Thomson (1903) Cathode Ray Tube Experiments Discovered Electrons
beam of negative particles Discovered Electrons negative particles within the atom Plum-pudding Model

8 J. J. Thomson (1903) Plum-pudding Model
positive sphere (pudding) with negative electrons (plums) dispersed throughout

9 Ernest Rutherford (1911) Gold Foil Experiment Discovered the nucleus
dense, positive charge in the center of the atom Nuclear Model

10 Ernest Rutherford (1911) Nuclear Model
dense, positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons

11 Niels Bohr (1913) Bright-Line Spectrum Energy Levels Planetary Model
tried to explain presence of specific colors in hydrogen’s spectrum Energy Levels electrons can only exist in specific energy states Planetary Model

12 Niels Bohr (1913) Bright-line spectrum Planetary Model
electrons move in circular orbits within specific energy levels

13 Erwin Schrödinger (1926) Quantum mechanics Electron cloud model
electrons can only exist in specified energy states Electron cloud model orbital: region around the nucleus where e- are likely to be found

14 Electron Cloud Model (orbital)
Erwin Schrödinger (1926) Electron Cloud Model (orbital) dots represent probability of finding an e- not actual electrons

15 James Chadwick (1932) Discovered neutrons Joliot-Curie Experiments
neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom Joliot-Curie Experiments based his theory on their experimental evidence

16 revision of Rutherford’s Nuclear Model
James Chadwick (1932) Neutron Model revision of Rutherford’s Nuclear Model

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