Presentation on theme: "Battles of World War II European and Pacific Fronts."— Presentation transcript:
Battles of World War II European and Pacific Fronts
War in Europe #1. El Alamein #2. Casablanca #3. Stalingrad #4. Sicily / Italian campaign #5. D-day / Invasion of Normandy #6. Battle of the Bulge #7. Elbe River
#1. El Alamein Date: Nov. 1942 Location: North Africa – Egypt, near the Suez Canal. Details: British General Montgomery defeated the German tank specialist Erwin “Desert Fox” Rommel and pushed the Nazi army westward. This battle allowed the Allies to keep control of the Suez canal and dictate the flow of ships into the Mediterranean Sea.
#1. El Alamein British General Montgomery Nazi tank commander Erwin “Desert Fox” Rommel
#2. Casablanca Date: Nov. 1942 Location: North Africa – Morocco Details: Part of Operation Torch; this battle placed the best United States tank general, George Patton on the ground in North Africa. His tank forces began to push Nazi troops/tanks eastward back toward Tunisia. This action along with British General Montgomery push from the Suez canal liberated North Africa from the Nazis.
#2. Casablanca U.S. Tank General George PattonOperation Torch
#3. Stalingrad Date: August 1942 – Feb. 1943 Location: Russia Details: Major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad. Marked by constant hand to hand fighting and disregard for civilian casualties, it is among the bloodiest battles of the war. And it is the turning point in the war for the Soviet Union.
#4. Sicily / Italian Invasion Date: July 1943. Location: Sicily & Italy Details: Patton invaded Sicily. Took the island in 30 days and moved onto mainland Italy. Italy removed Mussolini from power, yet Nazi forces evacuated him to northern Italy. Allies progress slowed due to Nazi reinforcement. Slow, fierce fighting until May 1944.
#5. D-day / Invasion of Normandy Date: June 6, 1944 (know this date) Location: France Details: Called Operation Overlord, designed by Allied Supreme Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower. It was the largest amphibious land attack in history. Launched from G.B. 150,000 troops crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches in Normandy, France. Fierce fighting to liberate France, and get them back on the Allies side in the war.
#6. Battle of the Bulge Date: December 1944 Location: Belgium & Luxembourg Details: Germany launched a “final push” towards France. This counterattack pushed back Allied forces, but reinforcements sent to the battle stopped the German advance. It was the largest battle in Western Europe during WWII. After, Nazi leaders recognized the war was lost.
#7. Elbe River Date: April 25, 1945 Location: Germany Details: Soviet troops moving from the east met with American troops moving from the west. This event symbolized the liberation of all of Europe from Nazi control. April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide. May 8, 1945 – German surrender (V-E Day)
War in the Pacific #1. Coral Sea #2. Midway Island #3. Leyte Gulf #4. Iwo Jima #5. Okinawa #6. Hiroshima #7. Nagisaki
#1. Coral Sea Date: May 1942 American navy engaged superior Japanese fleet north of Australia. 5 day battle – cost both sides over half their planes Battle was a draw – but it stopped Japanese expansion into Australia.
#2. Midway Island Date: June 1942 Fought entirely from the air (same as Coral Sea) U.S. sunk 4 Japanese carriers; destroyed 250 planes and killed skilled Japanese pilots. Devastating blow to Japanese navy. U.S. broke Japanese codes before attack to aid in the victory. Stopped Japanese expansion toward Hawaii.
#3. Leyte Gulf Date: October 1944 Part of U.S. “island hopping” campaign Greatest naval battle of World War II Japanese first used kamikazes (suicide planes) U.S. will liberate the Philippines
#4. Iwo Jima Date: February 1945 Heavy casualties: 4,600 U.S. ; 20,000 Japanese U.S. used the island as a base from which to bomb Japanese cities ( 650 miles from Tokyo) Mount Suribachi – Pulitzer Prize photo that inspired the Iwo Jima Memorial in D.C.
#5. Okinawa Date: April 1945 Last and largest amphibious operation in the Pacific. Bloodiest and most sustained fighting of the war. 350 miles from Japan, U.S. hoped to stage an attack on mainland Japan from this location.
Manhattan Project U.S. Army began atomic bomb project in 1942. Headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. First bomb was successfully tested in July 1945 in New Mexico
#6. Hiroshima Order was given by Harry S. Truman Bomb was codenamed Little Boy Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima. August 6, 1945 B-52 Bomber, Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
#7. Nagasaki Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki. This bomb forced the Japanese to surrender. August 9,1945 B-29 Bomber, Bockscar dropped atomic bomb, Fat Man.
Victory in Japan Official surrender took place on the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945.