Presentation on theme: "Oil’s wandering Path Content is modified after National Ocean Service/An Oily Mess, Smithsonian Institute/Pollution Solution, PWSSC/Marine Oil Pollution."— Presentation transcript:
1 Oil’s wandering PathContent is modified after National Ocean Service/An Oily Mess, Smithsonian Institute/Pollution Solution, PWSSC/Marine Oil Pollution and PWSSC/Fate of Spilled Oil
2 What items can you think of that are made from petroleum products?
3 How do we use oil? Transportation Fuel Lubrication Asphalt/pavement PlasticsMedicinesInkFertilizers/pesticidesPaints/varnishesElectricityWaxesBeauty productsNational Ocean Services/An Oily Mess
4 Oil’s Travels Oil can be spilled at any of these steps! Oil is extracted from the groundOil is pumped to a pipelineOil is transported to a refineryOil is transported to its final destinationOil can be spilled at any of these steps!
5 How Do Oil Spills Happen? Oil spills are caused by accidents, usually when transporting the oil.People make mistakes or are carelessEquipment breaks downNatural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakesDeliberate acts by terrorists, countries at war, vandals, or illegal dumpers
11 Man-Made Causes of Spills PWSSC/OSLE/Marine Oil Pollution
12 What Happens Once There is an Oil Spill? Oil and waxes stick togetherUsually float on waterVery heavy (dense) oil can sink
13 Ocean Surface Spills Oil stays on top of the water Oil is affected by winds and currentsOil spreads out rapidly and forms a thin layer (slick)90% of a spill’s volme is contained in 10% of its areaOil keeps spreading and becoming thinner until it becomes a “sheen” or “film”
14 Deep Water SpillsIf the spill involves a gas explosion, the gas add buoyancy to the oilIn shallow waters, the oil rises as a single plume and then spreads out once it reaches the surfaceIn deep waters, the oil rises like a smokestack until it starts to dissolve and “tip over”Bubbles rise at different speedsBubbles get smaller the taller the smokestack
15 The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill? When did the Exxon Valdez oil spill happen?Where did the Exxon Valdez hit?How much oil did the Exxon Valdez spill?
17 World Oil Spills Kuwaiti Oil Fires Gulf War Oil Spill 1991170 million tonsGulf War Oil SpillKuwait, Iraq, Persian Gulf5.1 million tonsDeepwater HorizonGulf of Mexico20110.57 million tonsImage from Time.comImage from guardian.co.uk
18 How does this compare with the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill? Kuwaiti Oil FireExxon Valdez Oil SpillImage from
19 What happens to the oil once it spills? Oil immediately starts to undergo weatheringEvaporationPhoto-oxidationEmulsification “mousse”BiodegradationSedimentation
20 What habitats are sensitive to oil spills? Oil affects different environments, plants, and animals in different waysEstuariesSandy BeachesRocky ShoresJuvenile Species HabitatOpen OceanWe must also consider how and where we can stage equipment in order to respond to the oil spill