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Operations Management

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Presentation on theme: "Operations Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Operations Management
Chapter 7 – Process Strategy PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 7e Operations Management, 9e

2 Outline Global Company Profile: Dell Computer Corp.
Four Process Strategies Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product Focus Mass Customization Focus Comparison of Process Choices

3 Outline – Continued Process Analysis and Design Flow Diagrams
Time-Function Mapping Value-Stream Mapping Process Charts Service Blueprinting

4 Outline – Continued Service Process Design
Customer Interaction and Process Design More Opportunities to Improve Service Processes Selection of Equipment and Technology

5 Outline – Continued Production Technology Machine Technology
Automatic Identification Systems (AISs) and RFID Process Control Vision Systems Robots

6 Outline – Continued Production Technology (cont.)
Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

7 Outline – Continued Technology in Services Process Redesign
Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes

8 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: Describe four production processes Compute crossover points for different processes Use the tools of process analysis Describe customer interaction in process design Identify recent advances in production technology

9 Mass customization provides a competitive advantage
Dell Computer Company Mass customization provides a competitive advantage Sell custom-built PCs directly to consumer Lean production processes and good product design allow responsiveness Integrate the Web into every aspect of its business Focus research on software designed to make installation and configuration of its PCs fast and simple

10 Process, Volume, and Variety
Low Volume Repetitive Process High Volume Volume Figure 7.1 High Variety one or few units per run, high variety (allows customization) Process Focus projects, job shops (machine, print, carpentry) Standard Register Mass Customization (difficult to achieve, but huge rewards) Dell Computer Changes in Modules modest runs, standardized modules Repetitive (autos, motorcycles) Harley-Davidson Changes in Attributes (such as grade, quality, size, thickness, etc.) long runs only Product Focus (commercial baked goods, steel, glass) Nucor Steel Poor Strategy (Both fixed and variable costs are high)

11 Process Strategies How to produce a product or provide a service that
Meets or exceeds customer requirements Meets cost and managerial goals Has long term effects on Efficiency and production flexibility Costs and quality

12 Process Strategies Four basic strategies Process focus
Repetitive focus Product focus Mass customization Within these basic strategies there are many ways they may be implemented

13 Process Focus Facilities are organized around specific activities or processes General purpose equipment and skilled personnel High degree of product flexibility Typically high costs and low equipment utilization Product flows may vary considerably making planning and scheduling a challenge

14 Many departments and many routings Many variety of outputs
Process Focus Job Shop Many departments and many routings Many inputs Many variety of outputs

15 Customer sales representative GLUING, BINDING, STAPLING, LABELING
Process Flow Diagram Customer Customer sales representative Vendors Receiving Warehouse Purchasing PRINTING DEPT PREPRESS DEPT Accounting COLLATING DEPT GLUING, BINDING, STAPLING, LABELING POLYWRAP DEPT SHIPPING Customer Information flow Material flow Figure 7.2

16 Repetitive Focus Facilities often organized as assembly lines
Characterized by modules with parts and assemblies made previously Modules may be combined for many output options Less flexibility than process-focused facilities but more efficient

17 Repetitive Focus Automobile Assembly Line
Raw materials and module inputs Modules combined for many output options Few modules

18 Frame-building work cells Engines and transmissions
Process Flow Diagram Frame tube bending Frame-building work cells Frame machining Hot-paint frame painting THE ASSEMBLY LINE TESTING 28 tests Oil tank work cell Shocks and forks Handlebars Fender work cell Air cleaners Fluids and mufflers Fuel tank work cell Wheel work cell Roller testing Incoming parts From Milwaukee on a JIT arrival schedule Engines and transmissions Crating Figure 7.3

19 Product Focus Facilities are organized by product
High volume but low variety of products Long, continuous production runs enable efficient processes Typically high fixed cost but low variable cost Generally less skilled labor

20 Output variations in size, shape, and packaging
Product Focus Continuous Work Flow Output variations in size, shape, and packaging Few inputs

21 Hot mill for finishing, cooling, and coiling
Product Focus Scrap steel Ladle of molten steel Electric furnace A B C Continuous caster Continuous cast steel sheared into 24-ton slabs Hot tunnel furnace ft Hot mill for finishing, cooling, and coiling D E F G H I Nucor Steel Plant

22 Mass Customization The rapid, low-cost production of goods and service to satisfy increasingly unique customer desires Combines the flexibility of a process focus with the efficiency of a product focus

23 Mass Customization Number of Choices Item 1970s 21st Century
Vehicle models Vehicle types 18 1,212 Bicycle types 8 19 Software titles 0 400,000 Web sites 0 98,116,993 Movie releases New book titles 40,530 77,446 Houston TV channels 5 185 Breakfast cereals Items (SKUs) in 14, ,000 supermarkets LCD TVs Number of Choices Item 1970s 21st Century Table 7.1

24 Flexible people and equipment Supportive supply chains
Mass Customization Repetitive Focus Flexible people and equipment Figure 7.5 Modular techniques Supportive supply chains Mass Customization Effective scheduling techniques Rapid throughput techniques Process-Focused High variety, low volume Low utilization (5% to 25%) General-purpose equipment Product-Focused Low variety, high volume High utilization (70% to 90%) Specialized equipment

25 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Small quantity, large variety of products Long runs, standardized product made from modules Large quantity, small variety of products Large quantity, large variety of products General purpose equipment Special equipment aids in use of assembly line Special purpose equipment Rapid changeover on flexible equipment Table 7.2

26 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Operators are broadly skilled Employees are modestly trained Operators are less broadly skilled Flexible operators are trained for the necessary customization Many job instructions as each job changes Repetition reduces training and changes in job instructions Few work orders and job instructions because jobs standardized Custom orders require many job instructions Table 7.2

27 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Raw material inventories high JIT procurement techniques used Raw material inventories are low Work-in-process is high JIT inventory techniques used Work-in-process inventory is low Work-in-process inventory driven down by JIT, lean production Table 7.2

28 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Units move slowly through the plant Movement is measured in hours and days Swift movement of unit through the facility is typical Goods move swiftly through the facility Finished goods made to order Finished goods made to frequent forecast Finished goods made to forecast and stored Finished goods often build-to-order (BTO) Table 7.2

29 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Scheduling is complex, trade-offs between inventory, availability, customer service Scheduling based on building various models from a variety of modules to forecasts Relatively simple scheduling, establishing output rate to meet forecasts Sophisticated scheduling required to accommodate custom orders Table 7.2

30 Comparison of Processes
Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Fixed costs low, variable costs high Fixed costs dependent on flexibility of the facility Fixed costs high, variable costs low Fixed costs high, variable costs must be low Costing estimated before job, known only after the job Costs usually known due to extensive experience High fixed costs mean costs dependent on utilization of capacity High fixed costs and dynamic variable costs make costing a challenge Table 7.2

31 Low volume, high variety High volume, low variety
Crossover Charts Fixed costs Variable costs $ Low volume, high variety Process A Fixed costs Variable costs $ Repetitive Process B Fixed costs Variable costs $ High volume, low variety Process C Total cost Total cost Total cost 400,000 300,000 200,000 Volume $ V2 (6,666) V1 (2,857) Fixed cost Process C Fixed cost Process B Fixed cost Process A Figure 7.6

32 Focused Processes Focus brings efficiency
Focus on depth of product line rather than breadth Focus can be Customers Products Service Technology

33 Changing Processes Difficult and expensive May mean starting over
Process strategy determines transformation strategy for an extended period Important to get it right

34 Process Analysis and Design
Flow Diagrams - Shows the movement of materials Time-Function Mapping - Shows flows and time frame Value-Stream Mapping - Shows flows and time and value added beyond the immediate organization Process Charts - Uses symbols to show key activities Service Blueprinting - focuses on customer/provider interaction

35 “Baseline” Time-Function Map
Customer Sales Production control Plant A Warehouse Plant B Transport Order product Process order Wait Move Receive product Print Wait Move Wait Extrude Wait 12 days 13 days 1 day 4 days 10 days 0 day 52 days Figure 7.7

36 “Target” Time-Function Map
Customer Sales Production control Plant Warehouse Transport Order product Process order Wait Move Receive product Extrude Wait Print 1 day 2 days 6 days Figure 7.7

37 Value-Stream Mapping Figure 7.8

38 Process Chart Figure 7.9

39 Service Blueprint Focuses on the customer and provider interaction
Defines three levels of interaction Each level has different management issues Identifies potential failure points

40 Service Blueprint Figure 7.10 Personal Greeting Service Diagnosis
Perform Service Friendly Close Level #1 Customer arrives for service Warm greeting and obtain service request F Notify customer the car is ready Customer departs Customer pays bill F No Notify customer and recommend an alternative provider Standard request Determine specifics No Can service be done and does customer approve? F Level #2 Direct customer to waiting room F Perform required work Prepare invoice Yes F Level #3 Figure 7.10

41 Process Analysis Tools
Flowcharts provide a view of the big picture Time-function mapping adds rigor and a time element Value-stream analysis extends to customers and suppliers Process charts show detail Service blueprint focuses on customer interaction

42 Service Process Matrix
Service Factory Service Shop Degree of Customization Low High Degree of Labor Mass Service Professional Service Commercial banking Private banking General- purpose law firms Law clinics Full-service stockbroker Limited-service stockbroker Retailing Boutiques Warehouse and catalog stores Specialized hospitals Hospitals Fast-food restaurants Fine-dining restaurants Airlines No-frills airlines Figure 7.11

43 Service Process Matrix
Labor involvement is high Selection and training highly important Focus on human resources Personalized services Mass Service and Professional Service Service Factory and Service Shop Automation of standardized services Low labor intensity responds well to process technology and scheduling Tight control required to maintain standards

44 Improving Service Productivity
Strategy Technique Example Separation Structure service so customers must go where service is offered Bank customers go to a manager to open a new account, to loan officers for loans, and to tellers for deposits Self-service Self-service so customers examine, compare, and evaluate at their own pace Supermarkets and department stores, Internet ordering Table 7.3

45 Improving Service Productivity
Strategy Technique Example Postponement Customizing at delivery Customizing vans at delivery rather than at production Focus Restricting the offerings Limited-menu restaurant Modules Modular selection of service, modular production Investment and insurance selection, prepackaged food modules in restaurants Table 7.3

46 Improving Service Productivity
Strategy Technique Example Automation Separating services that may lend themselves to automation Automatic teller machines Scheduling Precise personnel scheduling Scheduling ticket counter personnel at 15-minute intervals at airlines Training Clarifying the service options, explaining how to avoid problems Investment counselor, funeral directors, after-sale maintenance personnel Table 7.3

47 Improving Service Processes
Layout Product exposure, customer education, product enhancement Human Resources Recruiting and training Impact of flexibility

48 Equipment and Technology
Often complex decisions Possible competitive advantage Flexibility Stable processes May allow enlarging the scope of the processes

49 Production Technology
Machine technology Automatic identification systems (AISs) Process control Vision system Robot Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRSs) Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) Flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

50 Machine Technology Increased precision Increased productivity
Increased flexibility Improved environmental impact Reduced changeover time Decreased size Reduced power requirements

51 Automatic Identification Systems (AISs)
Improved data acquisition Reduced data entry errors Increased speed Increased scope of process automation Example – Bar codes and RFID

52 Process Control Increased process stability
Increased process precision Real-time provision of information for process evaluation Data available in many forms

53 Process Control Software

54 Vision Systems Particular aid to inspection Consistently accurate
Never bored Modest cost Superior to individuals performing the same tasks

55 Robots Perform monotonous or dangerous tasks
Perform tasks requiring significant strength or endurance Generally enhanced consistency and accuracy

56 Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs)
Automated placement and withdrawal of parts and products Reduced errors and labor Particularly useful in inventory and test areas of manufacturing firms

57 Automated Guided Vehicle (AGVs)
Electronically guided and controlled carts Used for movement of products and/or individuals

58 Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs)
Computer controls both the workstation and the material handling equipment Enhance flexibility and reduced waste Can economically produce low volume at high quality Reduced changeover time and increased utilization Stringent communication requirement between components

59 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
Extension of flexible manufacturing systems Backwards to engineering and inventory control Forward into warehousing and shipping Can also include financial and customer service areas Reducing the distinction between low-volume/high-variety, and high-volume/low-variety production

60 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
Figure 7.12

61 Technology in Services
Service Industry Example Financial Services Debit cards, electronic funds transfer, ATMs, Internet stock trading Education Electronic bulletin boards, on-line journals, WebCT and Blackboard Utilities and government Automated one-man garbage trucks, optical mail and bomb scanners, flood warning systems Restaurants and foods Wireless orders from waiters to kitchen, robot butchering, transponders on cars that track sales at drive-throughs Communications Electronic publishing, interactive TV Table 7.4

62 Technology in Services
Service Industry Example Hotels Electronic check-in/check-out, electronic key/lock system Wholesale/retail trade ATM-like kiosks, point-of-sale (POS) terminals, e-commerce, electronic communication between store and supplier, bar coded data Transportation Automatic toll booths, satellite-directed navigation systems Health care Online patient-monitoring, online medical information systems, robotic surgery Airlines Ticketless travel, scheduling, Internet purchases Table 7.4

63 Process Redesign The fundamental rethinking of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance Relies on reevaluating the purpose of the process and questioning both the purpose and the underlying assumptions Requires reexamination of the basic process and its objectives Focuses on activities that cross functional lines Any process is a candidate for redesign

64 Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes
Reduce the negative impact on the environment Encourage recycling Efficient use of resources Reduction of waste by-products Use less harmful ingredients Use less energy

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