Presentation on theme: "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VENTILATION & RESPIRATION."— Presentation transcript:
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VENTILATION & RESPIRATION
VENTILATION Ventilation = Breathing – NO gas exchange Inspiration & Expiration Steps A. Diaphragm contracts & lowers B. Intercostals contract & lift ribs C. Lungs expand D. Increased volume in lungs = decreased pressure in lungs E. Air moves in (high to low pressure) F. Expiration = opposite!
VENTILATION VISUALS http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm Be sure to look at these sites: copy & paste the URL’s
VENTILATION VISUALS http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm Be sure to look at these sites: type in the URL’s
Lung Volume & Capacities Assignment Use text pg 497 Label all terms on chart (you can use letters) BRIEFLY define all terms in space around chart Define “ Dead Space ” ☆ This will be graded next class with an open-note quiz - you will not turn it in!
RESPIRATION Respiration = actual exchange of gases 1.External = diffusion of O 2 CO 2 between alveoli blood 2.Internal = diffusion of O 2 CO 2 between blood cells 3.Cellular = cells use O 2 to burn food (glucose) & produce CO 2 as waste Types: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_96.htm Copy & Paste this URL!
TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Oxygen 98% of O 2 in blood is bound to Hemoglobin (Hb) Hb + O 2 HbO 2 How tight the Hb holds on to O 2 depends on: 1. pH 2.Temperature 3.Amount of CO 2 & O 2 present Ex: In muscles at exercise
TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Carbon Dioxide Can be transported 1 of 3 ways: 1.Dissolved in the plasma – 7% 2.Directly bound to Hb – 23% 3.Converted to carbonic acid & then bicarbonate ion on the RBC – 70% CO 2 + H 2 0 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - +H + ☆ Respiratory Rates are VERY susceptible to levels of CO 2 in the blood: too high = too acidic – body response = increased breathing
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS VOCABULARY Apnea = absence of breathing Dyspnea = difficulty breathing Hypoxia = decreased O 2 to cells ☆ Lung Cancer = #1 cause of cancer death in U.S. & >90% of all cases are b/c of smoking!
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Emphysema – degeneration of alveolar walls (permanent) Normal Alveoli
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Asthma – spasm of bronchioles
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Pneumonia – viral/bacterial infection of alveoli walls
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Pulmonary edema – fluid in alveoli - usually from another condition (like a failing heart!)
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Cystic Fibrosis – genetic disorder fills lungs with mucus – death by age 30 usually!
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Tuberculosis(TB) – bacterial infection- scarring of lungs/death ☆ #1 infectious disease killer in world ☆ > 2 billion infected & becoming resistant to meds!