Presentation on theme: "Respiratory system. Mechanism of lung ventilation."— Presentation transcript:
1 Respiratory system. Mechanism of lung ventilation.
2 Respiratory systemThe respiratory system is divided into a respiratoryzone, which is the site of gas exchange between airand blood, and a conducting zone, which conductsthe air to the respiratory zone.The exchange of gases between air and bloodoccurs across the walls of respiratory alveoli. Thesetiny air sacs, only a single cell layer thick, permitrapid rates of gas diffusion.
3 RespirationThe term respiration includes three separate but related functions:(1) ventilation (breathing);(2) gas exchange, which occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body; and(3) oxygen utilization by the tissues in the energy – liberating reactions of cell respiration.Ventilation and the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and blood are collectively called external respiration. Gas exchange between the blood and other tissues and oxygen utilization by the tissues are collectively known as internal respiration.
5 Respiratory tubes conduct air to and from the lungs. Respiratory movements: rhythmical bellows-like movements aid intake of air to lungs and expulsion of air from lungs.Respiratory surfaces in lungs, across which exchange of respiratory gases occurs.Blood transports respiratory gases to and from all tissues of the body.
6 The air passages of the respiratory system are divided into two functional zones. The respiratory zone is the region where gas exchange occurs, and it therefore includes the respiratory bronchioles (because they contain separate outpouchings of alveoli) and the terminal alveolar sacs.The conducting zone includes all of the anatomical structures through which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone
7 The conducting zone of the respiratory system consists of the mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, and all successive branchings of the bronchioles up to and including the terminal bronchioles.In addition to conducting air into the respiratory zone, these structures serve additional functions: warming and humidification of the inspired air and filtration and cleaning.
8 ThoraxThe thorax (or chest) is the closed cavity which contains the lungs, heart and great vessels. The thorax is lined by two thin layers of membrane – the PLEURA – the inner (visceral) layer of which covers the LUNGS. The outer (parietal) layer covers the inner wall of the thorax.Elastic recoil of lungs tends to pull visceral layer away from parietal layer. This creates subatmospheric or negative intrapleural pressure (about -2 mmHg).
9 With forced inspiration, it can become -30 mmHg. In quiet inspiration, the chest wall is tending to pull away from lungs and the intrapleural pressure becomes about -6 mmHg.With forced inspiration, it can become -30 mmHg.NB: a negative pressure is a pressure below atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg). A positive pressure is above atmospheric pressure.Capacity of thoracic cage and the pressure between pleural surfaces change rhythmically about 12 – 14 times a minute with the movements of respiration – air movement in and out of the lungs follows the dimension changes.
10 In NORMAL QUIET BREATHING MECHANISM OF BREATHING The rhythmical changes in the capacity of the thorax are brought about by the action of skeletal muscles. The changes in lung volume, with intake or expulsion of air, follow.In NORMAL QUIET BREATHINGINSPIRATIONExternal intercostal muscles actively contract: ribs and sternum move upwards and outwards because first rib is fixed, width of chest increases from side to side and depth from front to back increases.Diaphragm contracts, length of chest increases. Capacity of thorax is increasedPressure between pleural surfaces (already negative) becomes more negative:from -2 to -6 mmHg
11 Elastic tissue of lungs is stretched Lungs expand to fill thoracic cavityAir pressure in alveoli is now -1,5 mmHgAir is sucked into alveoli from atmosphere because of pressure difference.
12 Pressure between pleural surfaces becomes less negative: EXSPIRATIONExternal intercostal muscles relax: ribs and sternum more downwards and inwards, width and depth of chest diminishes. Diaphragm relaxes – ascends – length of chest diminishes. Capacity of thorax is decreased.Pressure between pleural surfaces becomes less negative:from -6 to -2 mmHgElastic tissue of lungs recoilsAir pressure in alveoli is now +1,5 mmHg (greater than atm. pressure)Air is forced out of alveoli to atmosphere
13 In FORCED BREATHINGMuscles of nostrils and round glottis may contract to aid entrance of air to lungs.Extensors of vertebral column may aid inspiration.Muscles of neck contract – move 1st rib upwards (and sternum upwards and forwards).Internal intercostal may contract – move ribs downwards more actively.Abdominal muscles contract – actively aid ascent of diaphragm.
14 VOLUMES and CAPACITIES OF LUNG Lung VolumesThe four nonoverlapping components of the total lung capacity:Tidal volume – the volume of gas inspired or expired in an unforced respiratory cycle;Inspiratory reserve volume – the maximum volume of gas that can be inspired during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume;Expiratory reserve volume – the maximum volume of gas that can be expired during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume;Residual volume – the volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration.
15 Lung CapacitiesMeasurements that are the sum of two or more lung volumesTotal lung capacity – the total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration;Vital capacity – the maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum inspiration;Inspiratory capacity – the maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidal expiration;Functional residual capacity – the amount of gas remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration.
17 Values for volumes and capacities are typical values but will vary with the subject’s size and weight. Values are usually about 25% less in women.At rest a normal male adult breathes in and out about 12 times per minute. The amount of air breathed in per minute is therefore 500 ml x 12 i.e ml or 6 liters – this is the respiratory minute volume or pulmonary ventilation. In exercise it may go up to as much as 200 liters.In deep breathing the volume of atmospheric air inspired with each inspiration and the amount which reaches the alveoli increase.
18 Ventilation Terminology Air spaces – alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli;Airways – structures that conduct air from the mouth and nose to the respiratory bronchiolesAlveolar ventilation – removal and replacement of gas in alveoli; equal to the tidal volume minus the volume of dead space times the breathing rateAnatomical dead space – volume of the conducting airways to the zone where gas exchange occursApnea – cessation of breathingDyspnea – unpleasant, subjective feeling of difficult or labored breathingEupnea - normal, comfortable breathing at rest
19 Hyperventilation – alveolar ventilation that is excessive in relation to metabolic rate; results in abnormally low alveolar CO2Hypoventilation – alveolar ventilation that is low in relation to metabolic rate; results in abnormally high alveolar CO2Physiological dead space – combination of anatomical dead space and underventilated or underperfused alveoli that do not contribute normally to blood gas exchangePneumothorax – presence of gas in the intrapleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleurae) causing lung collapseTorr – unit of pressure nearly equal to the millimeter of mercury (760 mmHg = 760 torr)