2 IntroductionWater pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
3 CausesWater pollution causes are generally categorized into two types:Point sourceNon–point sourcewater pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch which emit harmful substances directly into a body of water.refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source.
4 Point sources:SewageIt is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community.
5 Waste water Domestic wastewater Domestic effluents are generated by activities such as bathing, cleaning, sanitation, laundry, cooking, washing and other kitchen activities.
6 Industrial wastewater The volume and characteristics of industrial effluents differ by industry and depend on the production processes and scale of production used. Industrial wastewater may be organic and/or inorganic.
7 Agricultural wastewater Major sources of agricultural runoffs include: organic wastes such as decayed plants, livestock manure, and dead animals; soil loss in the form of suspended solids; and pesticides and fertilizer residues.
8 Chemical waste- is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals and highly toxic (mostly produced by large factories).Such us pesticides, lead, zinc, mercury and so on.
9 Radioactive wasteAre waste that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment.
10 Thermal pollutionIt is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.
11 Mining activitiesIt refers to mines that are currently engaged in mineral and metal extraction operations. The materials can range from common to precious, and from inert to hazardous.
12 Urban run offIt is a surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization. This runoff is a major source of water pollution urban communities worldwide.
13 Non-point sources Oil effluents Is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land
14 NutrientsIt usually comes from fertilizers. It returns important nutrients to the environment, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which plants and animals need for growth.Act as fertilizer for algae & aquatic plants which can cause highly varying dissolved oxygen levels. At low DO levels, the aquatic life has the potential to be harmed.
15 Disruption of sediments reduces light penetration in stream, clogs gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates
16 Solid wasteSolid waste disposed either at a dumpsite or directly into water-bodies, generates high loads of organic and inorganic pollution through biological disintegration.
17 Global warmingHigh carbon dioxide levels increase the air's temperature. This can cause the Earth's average temperature to rapidly change.
18 Mechanism There are many ways of how water can be polluted. Runoff As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.Metals get into freshwaterMetals are introduced in aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils and rocks, from volcanic eruptions, and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal pollutants.
19 Effects Waterborne infectious disease Pathogens originating from excreta contaminates the water.Disparity in the ecosystemPollution generates disparity in the ecosystem creating Imbalance. It causes changes in food - webs and food chains and shifts biodiversity of animals and plants in ecosystem.
20 SiltationSuspended soil clouds the water to such a degree that millions of algae, an important base for aquatic food chains, die because they do not receive enough light for photosynthesis.
21 EutrophicationIs the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates.
23 Red tideHuman activities that affect nutrient concentrations in seawater may be having an important influence on the increasingly more frequent occurrences of red tides in some areas.
24 Effects due to thermal pollution: Reduction in dissolve oxygenInterference with reproductionIncrease in vulnerability to diseaseDirect mortalityInvasion of destructive OrganismDestruction of organisms in cooling water
25 Impact Environmental Impact Aquatic life water pollution has the ability to destroy many animal habitats, and cause irreparable damage to many ecosystems.Aquatic lifeExtreme acidity can kill adult fish and invertebrate life directly and can also damage developing juvenile fish.
26 Human IllnessAs pollutant levels increase, human exposure to toxins will also increase.ExtinctionPollution has an adverse impact on wildlife and will continue to do so well into the future.Economic EffectsPollution, due to its ability to cause illness in humans, can have a significant impact on the world's economy.
27 Mitigation Education Laws Republic Act 9275: The Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004Economicspolluter pays principleGovernment ProgramsPollution Fines and Environmental TaxesBioremediationNatural Attenuation
28 Conclusion and recommendation Water is the most precious resource on our planet and the most vital means for survival. Thus all living things cannot live without water most especially human beings. However, water pollution is caused by human activities We can take individual action to help reduce water pollution, for example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, reducing pesticides, not pouring paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground and so on. Most effective way to attain the goal of having clean water is to value self- discipline in each individual in disposing all kinds of waste.
29 We can take community action too, by helping out in coastal clean-ups and by helping out to maintain our rivers clean. Working together, we can make pollution less of a problem—and the world a better place.