Alcohol Abuse Alcohol abuse means having unhealthy or dangerous drinking habits, such as drinking every day or drinking too much at a time.
Short-Term Effects Accidents – DWI, falls, drowning, etc. Overdose (can cause the heart and breathing to stop) Violence Weight gain or malnutrition Blackouts – periods of time the drinker cannot recall Alcohol poisoning Hangover – nausea, upset stomach, vomiting, headache, general sick feeling Sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancy
Long-Term Effects Brain Damage – destroys nerve cells Digestive Disorders – can lead to cancer in the stomach, throat, esophagus, and mouth Heartburn and Ulcers Cirrhosis of the Liver – useless scar tissue that replaces normal liver tissue Heart Disease – increases blood pressure and heart rate Alcohol Dependency- need alcohol to get through the day
Alcoholism – the physical and mental dependence on alcohol Nerve damage Kidney damage Death Reverse tolerance – less alcohol causes intoxication
Blood Alcohol Concentration Factors that Impact BAC: Gender Age Height/Weight Amount of Food In Stomach Rate of Consumption (how fast they drink) Amount of alcohol consumed
Drinking Games: Binge Drinking Alcohol in Disguise Drinking Games: Binge Drinking Alcohol in Disguise
Alcohol Dependence Alcohol dependence occurs when a person has a physical or emotional dependence on the use of alcohol that leads to significant impairment or distress.
A person is diagnosed as being alcohol-dependent if at least 3 of the following are true. The person: Needs larger amounts of alcohol to feel its effects (tolerance). Has withdrawal symptoms (such as shakiness, confusion, or agitation) when he or she does not drink alcohol, or continues to drink alcohol to avoid these symptoms. Drinks alcohol in larger amounts or over a longer period of time than intended. Constantly thinks about or tries to cut down on or control drinking but is not successful. Spends a great deal of time trying to get alcohol, using it, or recovering from its effects. Avoids important activities because of alcohol use. Continues to drink even though it causes or makes worse another health condition (such as an ulcer), or causes legal or work problems.
Alcohol Dependent is also known as ALCOHOLISM Alcoholism is a long-term (chronic) disease. It's not a weakness or a lack of willpower. Like many other diseases, it has a course that can be predicted, has known symptoms, and is influenced by your genes and your life situatio n.
The Early Adaptive Stage of Alcoholism In the early stage of alcoholism, individuals tend to pick up the bottle for the pleasurable effects of alcohol—perceived high, euphoria. This drinking is for a good time, to relieve stress, and as an escape from life.. In the early stage of alcoholism, adaptation takes a central role. While an individual is drinking their body experiences physical and mental stress with many normal bodily functions thrown out of balance due to alcohol. In attempts to retain normal function, cells make specific changes in their structure. These changes are what allow the body to perceivably function normally while under the influence of alcohol.
Middle Stage of Alcoholism The middle stage introduces withdrawal symptoms to the alcoholic. When he or she stops drinking for a certain period of time, the body – that has adapted to the continuous alcohol intake – now suffers physical pain. The discomfort experienced during withdrawal is what drives the alcoholic to drink. And the vicious cycle continues… Cravings One of the main differences between the early stage of alcoholism and the middle stage is why individuals decide to drink in each stage. When a person’s alcoholism has escalated to the middle stage, alcohol’s pleasurable effects no longer take precedence, rather, he or she drinks for medication—to “cure” pain often derived from previous drinking.
Late Stage of Alcoholism The middle stages are the first signs of deterioration,in the late stage of alcoholism we see increasing toxicity and damage to body organs and systems. The mental and physical health of the alcoholic have suffered immensely and are more visible to others. The alcoholic’s physical strength, and mental stability are severely damaged and their immune system is highly susceptible to disease and infection. Below are the major medical consequences of alcoholism in reaching its final stage: Heart Failure Fatty Liver, Hepatitis, and Cirrhosis Gastrointestinal Disorders Respiratory Tract Diseases Cancer Pancreatitis Malnutrition
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Birth Defects: - deformed face - delayed growth - heart defects - poor motor development - behavior problems This can occur after just one episode of binge drinking
Treatment Detoxification – removing all alcohol from the body. Rehabilitation – as recovery continues help is given for problems caused by the drinking. This is where people learn to live without alcohol.
Support Groups A.A. (Alcoholics Anonymous) – a group made up of recovery alcoholics. This group was founded in 1938 and have over a million members. Ala-teen – provides help for teens that live with alcoholics. Al-anon – for family and friends of an alcoholic SADD – Students Against Destructive Decisions MADD – Mothers Against Destructive Decisions
Definitions Binge Drinking - 4 or more drinks for a female or five or more drinks for a male in one time period. Withdrawal – Negative symptoms a person experiences when they stop using a drug they are dependent on. Enabler – People who unintentionally protect addicts from the consequences of their behavior Synergism – increases another drugs effects. Example – sleeping pills and alcohol