Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System, Pathology. The Heart: Myocardial Infarction M.I. = Coronary = Heart Attack Occurs due to lack of blood (oxygen)"— Presentation transcript:
The Heart: Myocardial Infarction M.I. = Coronary = Heart Attack Occurs due to lack of blood (oxygen) to cardiac cells Symptoms: Angina: Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw, throat, or arm Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling (may feel like heartburn) Sweating, nausea, vomiting, or dizziness Extreme weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath Palpatations: Rapid or irregular heartbeats
Atherosclerosis/Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis – Fatty build-up inside of arteries decrease size of lumen and inhibit blood flow. Aorta and coronary arteries are especially susceptible to atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis – End stage of atherosclerosis. Smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue in the tunica media die, and are replaced by nonelastic scar tissue. Weakened arterial walls could balloon into an aneurysm.
Aneurysm Ballooning of an artery wall, can rupture leading to hemorrhage. Common in the abdomen aorta, and arteries of the brain and kidneys.
Embolism A thrombus is a blood clot that forms in an unbroken blood vessel. If it breaks away and floats through the blood stream, it becomes an embolus. An embolus can flow through the blood vessels until it reaches a vessel too small to pass through. It then blocks blood flow to tissues down stream. Could be life threatening if the embolus blocks tissues in vital organs: lungs, heart, brain
The Heart: Congestive Heart Failure A progressive condition that reflects a weakening of the heart by coronary atherosclerosis (clogging the coronary arteries) Left side failure leads to pulmonary edema Right side continues to send blood to lungs, but left side doesn’t remove blood to systemic circulation. Blood vessels in lungs begin to leak fluid into the lungs. Could lead to death by suffocation. Right side failure leads to peripheral edema Most noticeable in distal parts of the body: feet, ankles, and fingers become swollen Failure of one side of the heart strains the other side, and could lead to cardiac arrest.
Varicose Veins Common in people who stand for long periods of time, and in obese (or pregnant individuals) 1.Lack of activity causes blood to pool in the feet and legs. 2.Over-full veins causes valves to give way, resulting in dilated, twisted veins 3.Thrombophlebitis could occur: blood clot forms in a varicose vein. 4.Clot breaks free, get trapped in blood vessels of the lungs leading to a pulmonary embolism (life-threatening)