2 Contents INGV Experiences on Volcanoes Monitoring 27 mars 2017ContentsINGV Experiences on Volcanoes MonitoringProposed approach for Latin American
3 Italian Seismic and Volcanic Surveillance Italy presents high seismicity on its territory.Active volcanoes are located mainly in the southern regions.The seismometric network has been developed over the last 20 years.Volcanic observatories are active in Napoli and Catania since the presence of Vesuvio-Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna.
5 Italy is subject to different Geohazards risks as earthquakes and volcanoes, moreover the high population density requires a constant surveilance of the volcanoes activiy level.The permanent monitoring of active volcanic areas involve the surveilance many different phenomena related to volcanic activityThe surveilance system must be efficient on detect the signs of an impending eruption and therefore activate the Civil Protection structures.The basic requirements are well organized ground based networks that provide continuous data to observatories and operative centres.Satellite system may improve the monitoring capability by providing new information and a global view of the territory
6 ITALIAN TECTONIC AND VOLCANIC FEATURES The map shows the locations of Italian active volcanoes and the main tectonic features of on the central-southern Italy
7 Type of volcanic activity produced by the Italian volcanoes Lava Flows (Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvio)Ash Clouds, Strombolian activity (Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Vulcano)Anomalous gas emissions (Panarea, Colli Albani, Vulcano)Lahars, land slides, debris-flows (tutti i vulcani)Tsunami (Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvio)Pyroclastic Flows (Vesuvio, Vulcano, Campi Flegrei)Caldera Collaps (Campi Fregrei, Vesuvio, Etna)
8 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia The INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)is one of the major European research institutes in geophysics. It has many centres and 500 researchers working on seismology, volcanology, geodesy, remote sensing, geochemistry, atmospheric physics.INGV develops and controls many instrumental networks to monitor seismic and volcanic activity with a 24h surveillance of the Italian territory for the Civil Protection
9 INGV LOCATIONS IN ITALY INGV Departments:• Centro Nazionale TerremotiRoma• Seismology and Tectonophysics• Geomagnetism, Aeronomy andEnvorinmentNapoli• Osservatorio VesuvianoCatania• Volcanology (Etna-Aeolian Isl.)Milano• Engineering SeismologyPalermo• GeochemistryPisa• Volcanology and modelingBologna• Seismology• Climatology
10 Italian seismic and GPS Network (2009) : 150 BB stations110 CGPS60 Strong MotionsOut of ~250 real time stations
11 Grottaminarda, Roma and Catania, each with two receiving antennas 27 mars 20173 central hubs:Grottaminarda, Roma and Catania, each with two receiving antennasADVANTAGESQuasi real-time data streamRe-transmission of lost packetsAutonomy from AC powerEconomy
12 Distribution of Permanent Network on Volcanic Areas
14 EXTRACT THE INFORMATION/PARAMETER FROM REMOTE SENSED DATA 27 mars 2017EXTRACT THE INFORMATION/PARAMETER FROM REMOTE SENSED DATAGround properties derived developing originalremote sensing algorithm:Lava flow effusion rateReflectance, Emissivity, Ground temperatureDTMGround deformation by InSAR techniquesVolcanic plumes parameters derived developing original remote sensing algorithm:- SO2 content and flux in volcanic plumes- Water content in volcanic plumes- Optical depth- CO2 content in volcanic plumesPeriodic Filed Campaign to Validate algorithm retrievals
15 Satellite monitoring facilities 27 mars 2017Satellite monitoring facilitiesThe INGV Remote Sensing Group has 15 years of experience in the application of SAR Interferometry techniques (authors of the first studies in Italy in 1997) to earthquakes studies and volcanoes monitoring.INGV RS Group develops algorithms to extract volcanic parameters from Optical data to monitor temperature, gas emissions and ash clouds.The INGV RS Group has a wide experience in SAR data time series generation in volcanic areas from different processing techniques.The PSI (Permanent Scatterers Interferometry), the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis), Small Baselines Subsets (SBAS) and StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatters) techniques are currently available at INGV RS Group.INGV RS Group has also experienced the project and development of corner reflectors to be installed in volcanic areas to be reference points for SAR Interferometry products.The INGV RS Group is author of recent studies over the Colli Albani and Etna volcanoes showing the slow deformation of the caldera.15
17 Satellite Monitoring System adapted to INGV functionality Hot spot detectionThermal anomalies analysis
18 SISTEMA RICHIO VULCANICO (SRV) INGV has a gained experience in monitoring of volcanoes with an integrated approach employing both Remote Sensing and Ground data.The Project SRV(Sistema Rischio Vulcanico funded by ASI (the Italian Space Agency), is an example of such a system, developed according to the Italian DPC (Civil Protection Department) requirements, using COSMO-SkyMed data provided by ASI and downloaded through dedicated receiving antennas, under specific agreement.
19 SRV Products for end users EtnaAsh and lava distribution map productVolcanic thickness productDeformation Map from DinSAR product (time series)Post Crisis PhaseVolcanic Plumes and Clouds analysis productThermal Flux, Effusion RateDeformation Map from DinSAR produsc (time series)Deformation Map from InSAR product (sin eruptive)Crisis PhaseDegassing Plumes analysis productEtna, Campi Flegrei, VesuvioSurface temperature and Thermal fluxEtna and Vesuvio – Campi FlegreiMultiparametric Analysis productKnowledge and PreventionGEOGRAPHICAL AREAEO PRODUCTSPHASE
21 System ConceptThe Volcano Monitoring System will be made of the following elements:Ground Network, dedicated to collect primary information from volcanoes with Seismic and GPS systemsMulti-Satellite Reception Centre, devoted to enrich Ground Network information with processing chain for deriving specific products from optical and radar (SAR) dataRegional Analysis Platform, representing the centre where both Ground Network and Optical and Radar (SAR) data are analysed and integrated for deriving specific information on monitoringLocal Delivery Platform, representing the part of the system deployed near the Volcanological observatory where the information is interpreted and make available to Local Authorities and Decision MakersSatellite Link System, represent the framework for broadcasting the information especially from the Ground Network to the Regional Analysis Platform and Local Delivery Platform via satellite telecommunications. The use of this network to other communications needs within the system will be evaluated during the feasibility study activities.The deployment of these elements depends on the feasibility study resultIt is expected one (or two) multi-satellite reception centre, a regional analysis platform for each country and several local delivery platform.
22 Local Authorities and Decision Makers COSMO-SkyMedSAC-DSENTINELTERRA/AQUA…EUMETSAT SatelliteLinkMULTI-SATELLITE RECEPTION CENTRESAR dataProcessingChainsOptical dataProcessingChainsBack-up GroundNetwork DataOperationGround or Satellite LinkGround or SatelliteLink SystemNATIIONAL ANALYSIS PLATFORMEO Data AnalysisGround Networkdata analysisDATA INTEGRATIONAnalystGround or Satellite LinkSeismic and GPS data fromGround Monitoring Network(External Interface )LOCAL MONITORING INTERFACEVolcanologicalObservatoriesLocal Authorities and Decision Makers
23 MULTI-SATELLITE DATA CENTRE MULTI-SATELLITE RECEPTION CENTRE COSMO-SkyMedSAC-DSENTINELTERRA/AQUA…MULTI-SATELLITE DATA CENTREMULTI-SATELLITE RECEPTION CENTRESARProcessingChainsOptical dataProcessingChainsBack-up GroundNetwork DataOperationThe Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will be the centralized ground station for receiving and processing, in near real-time, multi-satellite data over the area of interestThe Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will operate processing chains for Level 1 and 2 products (SAR and Optical) for volcanic activity monitoringThe Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will also receive the ground data coming form the local networks which will trigger the acquisition in near real time and real time from the satellitesThe Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will also act as security centre for the ground data storageThe Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will use satellite link to receive and send data to the regional centers to ensure the timing of the information to the “Decision Makers”
24 REGIONAL ANALYSIS PLATFORM REGIONAL ANALYSIS PLATFORM Ground Networkdata analysisEO Data AnalysisDATA INTEGRATIONAnalystThe Regional Analysis Platform may serve more than one volcanic areaThe Regional Analysis Platform will receive ground network data to perform specific analysisThe Regional Analysis Platform will receive level 1 and 2 data generated by the Multi-Satellite Data CentreThe Regional Analysis Platform will integrate satellite derived products with ground dataThe Regional Analysis Platform may also contain modules for the volcanic source modelingThe integrated products will be make available data
25 LOCAL DELIVERY PLATFORM LOCAL DELIVERY PLATFORM VolcanologicalObservatoriesThe Local Delivery Platform represents the portal for the Volcano Observatories to access the Satellite integrate productsThe Local Delivery Platform will use a WEBGIS architecture which will permit the download of the product in vectorial format in order to use them for further integration in legacy systems related with volcanological analysis
26 (MAINLY Seismic and GPS) GROUND NETWORKGROUND NETWORK(MAINLY Seismic and GPS)The Ground Network will be designed depending from the local existing infrastructures and need in order to optimize the data integration with satellite measurementsSeismic and GPS systems will represent the prime infrastructureAcoustic instruments could also be used. Correlating infrasonic and seismic events provides better eruption detection that ground system will detect and trigger the spatial acquisition systems
27 SATELLITE LINK SYSTEMThe Satellite Link System will be designed in order to support broadcasting of the information from the Ground Network to the Regional Analysis Platform and Local Delivery Platform.The Satellite Link System will consist of a telecommunication satellite broadband that will allow the distribution of any data using fixed and mobile stations.The architecture will be based on a Network Operation Centre with a master antenna and remote terminals.This network will allow the customer to have a complete broadband infrastructure that could be used to disseminate either Ground Network data (such as IP Multicast Internet Access, Web applications IP, Private Networks Sensor and network monitoring, Terrestrial Backup e disaster recovery, VoIP Video communications, Telemedicine and e-learning).
28 Possible structure for the ground monitoring and the links with the Data Centers and Local Observatories