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Central and South America Volcanoes Monitoring

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1 Central and South America Volcanoes Monitoring
27 mars 2017 INGV Central and South America Volcanoes Monitoring © Copyright e-GEOS – All rights Reserved RESTRICTION ON USE , DUPLICATION OR DIISCLOSURE OF e-GEOS PROPRIETARY INFORMATION This document discloses subject matter in which e-GEOS S.p.A. has proprietary rights. Recipient of the document shall not duplicate, use or disclose in whole or in part information contained herein to Third Parties without the written consensus of e-GEOS. Recipient of this document has the legal obligation to protect such information.

2 Contents INGV Experiences on Volcanoes Monitoring
27 mars 2017 Contents INGV Experiences on Volcanoes Monitoring Proposed approach for Latin American

3 Italian Seismic and Volcanic Surveillance
Italy presents high seismicity on its territory. Active volcanoes are located mainly in the southern regions. The seismometric network has been developed over the last 20 years. Volcanic observatories are active in Napoli and Catania since the presence of Vesuvio-Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna.

4 The Italian Volcanic Monitoring System

5 Italy is subject to different Geohazards risks as earthquakes and volcanoes, moreover the high population density requires a constant surveilance of the volcanoes activiy level. The permanent monitoring of active volcanic areas involve the surveilance many different phenomena related to volcanic activity The surveilance system must be efficient on detect the signs of an impending eruption and therefore activate the Civil Protection structures. The basic requirements are well organized ground based networks that provide continuous data to observatories and operative centres. Satellite system may improve the monitoring capability by providing new information and a global view of the territory

The map shows the locations of Italian active volcanoes and the main tectonic features of on the central-southern Italy

7 Type of volcanic activity produced by the Italian volcanoes
Lava Flows (Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvio) Ash Clouds, Strombolian activity (Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Vulcano) Anomalous gas emissions (Panarea, Colli Albani, Vulcano) Lahars, land slides, debris-flows (tutti i vulcani) Tsunami (Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvio) Pyroclastic Flows (Vesuvio, Vulcano, Campi Flegrei) Caldera Collaps (Campi Fregrei, Vesuvio, Etna)

8 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
The INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) is one of the major European research institutes in geophysics. It has many centres and 500 researchers working on seismology, volcanology, geodesy, remote sensing, geochemistry, atmospheric physics. INGV develops and controls many instrumental networks to monitor seismic and volcanic activity with a 24h surveillance of the Italian territory for the Civil Protection

INGV Departments: • Centro Nazionale Terremoti Roma • Seismology and Tectonophysics • Geomagnetism, Aeronomy and Envorinment Napoli • Osservatorio Vesuviano Catania • Volcanology (Etna-Aeolian Isl.) Milano • Engineering Seismology Palermo • Geochemistry Pisa • Volcanology and modeling Bologna • Seismology • Climatology

10 Italian seismic and GPS Network (2009) :
150 BB stations 110 CGPS 60 Strong Motions Out of ~250 real time stations

11 Grottaminarda, Roma and Catania, each with two receiving antennas
27 mars 2017 3 central hubs: Grottaminarda, Roma and Catania, each with two receiving antennas ADVANTAGES Quasi real-time data stream Re-transmission of lost packets Autonomy from AC power Economy

12 Distribution of Permanent Network on Volcanic Areas

13 Monitor Ground Networks in Neapolitan Area

27 mars 2017 EXTRACT THE INFORMATION/PARAMETER FROM REMOTE SENSED DATA Ground properties derived developing original remote sensing algorithm: Lava flow effusion rate Reflectance, Emissivity, Ground temperature DTM Ground deformation by InSAR techniques Volcanic plumes parameters derived developing original remote sensing algorithm: - SO2 content and flux in volcanic plumes - Water content in volcanic plumes - Optical depth - CO2 content in volcanic plumes Periodic Filed Campaign to Validate algorithm retrievals

15 Satellite monitoring facilities
27 mars 2017 Satellite monitoring facilities The INGV Remote Sensing Group has 15 years of experience in the application of SAR Interferometry techniques (authors of the first studies in Italy in 1997) to earthquakes studies and volcanoes monitoring. INGV RS Group develops algorithms to extract volcanic parameters from Optical data to monitor temperature, gas emissions and ash clouds. The INGV RS Group has a wide experience in SAR data time series generation in volcanic areas from different processing techniques. The PSI (Permanent Scatterers Interferometry), the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis), Small Baselines Subsets (SBAS) and StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatters) techniques are currently available at INGV RS Group. INGV RS Group has also experienced the project and development of corner reflectors to be installed in volcanic areas to be reference points for SAR Interferometry products. The INGV RS Group is author of recent studies over the Colli Albani and Etna volcanoes showing the slow deformation of the caldera. 15

16 Satellite monitoring activities
27 mars 2017 Satellite monitoring activities location vulcano Multitemporal DinSAR Optical sensors SAR sensors used Lazio Colli Albani X LANDSAT, SPOT,ASTER ERS-ENVISAT Campania Vesuvio LANDSAT, SPOT,ASTER, MODIS, VHRV Campi Flegrei LANDSAT, SPOT,ASTER, MODIS, AVHRR, VHRV Ischia ENVISAT Sicilia Etna LANDSAT, SPOT,ASTER, MODIS, AVHRR, MSG, VHRV ALOS COSMO-SkyMed TerraSAR-X Stromboli Vulcano Panarea Pantelleria 16

17 Satellite Monitoring System adapted to INGV functionality
Hot spot detection Thermal anomalies analysis

INGV has a gained experience in monitoring of volcanoes with an integrated approach employing both Remote Sensing and Ground data. The Project SRV (Sistema Rischio Vulcanico  funded by ASI (the Italian Space Agency), is an example of such a system, developed according to the Italian DPC (Civil Protection Department) requirements, using COSMO-SkyMed data provided by ASI and downloaded through dedicated receiving antennas, under specific agreement.

19 SRV Products for end users
Etna Ash and lava distribution map product Volcanic thickness product Deformation Map from DinSAR product (time series) Post Crisis Phase Volcanic Plumes and Clouds analysis product Thermal Flux, Effusion Rate Deformation Map from DinSAR produsc (time series) Deformation Map from InSAR product (sin eruptive) Crisis Phase Degassing Plumes analysis product Etna, Campi Flegrei, Vesuvio Surface temperature and Thermal flux Etna and Vesuvio – Campi Flegrei Multiparametric Analysis product Knowledge and Prevention GEOGRAPHICAL AREA EO PRODUCTS PHASE

20 Proposed Approach for Latin American

21 System Concept The Volcano Monitoring System will be made of the following elements: Ground Network, dedicated to collect primary information from volcanoes with Seismic and GPS systems Multi-Satellite Reception Centre, devoted to enrich Ground Network information with processing chain for deriving specific products from optical and radar (SAR) data Regional Analysis Platform, representing the centre where both Ground Network and Optical and Radar (SAR) data are analysed and integrated for deriving specific information on monitoring Local Delivery Platform, representing the part of the system deployed near the Volcanological observatory where the information is interpreted and make available to Local Authorities and Decision Makers Satellite Link System, represent the framework for broadcasting the information especially from the Ground Network to the Regional Analysis Platform and Local Delivery Platform via satellite telecommunications. The use of this network to other communications needs within the system will be evaluated during the feasibility study activities. The deployment of these elements depends on the feasibility study result It is expected one (or two) multi-satellite reception centre, a regional analysis platform for each country and several local delivery platform.

22 Local Authorities and Decision Makers
COSMO-SkyMed SAC-D SENTINEL TERRA/AQUA EUMETSAT Satellite Link MULTI-SATELLITE RECEPTION CENTRE SAR data Processing Chains Optical data Processing Chains Back-up Ground Network Data Operation Ground or Satellite Link Ground or Satellite Link System NATIIONAL ANALYSIS PLATFORM EO Data Analysis Ground Network data analysis DATA INTEGRATION Analyst Ground or Satellite Link Seismic and GPS data from Ground Monitoring Network (External Interface ) LOCAL MONITORING INTERFACE Volcanological Observatories Local Authorities and Decision Makers

COSMO-SkyMed SAC-D SENTINEL TERRA/AQUA MULTI-SATELLITE DATA CENTRE MULTI-SATELLITE RECEPTION CENTRE SAR Processing Chains Optical data Processing Chains Back-up Ground Network Data Operation The Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will be the centralized ground station for receiving and processing, in near real-time, multi-satellite data over the area of interest The Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will operate processing chains for Level 1 and 2 products (SAR and Optical) for volcanic activity monitoring The Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will also receive the ground data coming form the local networks which will trigger the acquisition in near real time and real time from the satellites The Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will also act as security centre for the ground data storage The Multi-Satellite Reception Centre will use satellite link to receive and send data to the regional centers to ensure the timing of the information to the “Decision Makers”

Ground Network data analysis EO Data Analysis DATA INTEGRATION Analyst The Regional Analysis Platform may serve more than one volcanic area The Regional Analysis Platform will receive ground network data to perform specific analysis The Regional Analysis Platform will receive level 1 and 2 data generated by the Multi-Satellite Data Centre The Regional Analysis Platform will integrate satellite derived products with ground data The Regional Analysis Platform may also contain modules for the volcanic source modeling The integrated products will be make available data

Volcanological Observatories The Local Delivery Platform represents the portal for the Volcano Observatories to access the Satellite integrate products The Local Delivery Platform will use a WEBGIS architecture which will permit the download of the product in vectorial format in order to use them for further integration in legacy systems related with volcanological analysis

26 (MAINLY Seismic and GPS)
GROUND NETWORK GROUND NETWORK (MAINLY Seismic and GPS) The Ground Network will be designed depending from the local existing infrastructures and need in order to optimize the data integration with satellite measurements Seismic and GPS systems will represent the prime infrastructure Acoustic instruments could also be used. Correlating infrasonic and seismic events provides better eruption detection that ground system will detect and trigger the spatial acquisition systems

27 SATELLITE LINK SYSTEM The Satellite Link System will be designed in order to support broadcasting of the information from the Ground Network to the Regional Analysis Platform and Local Delivery Platform. The Satellite Link System will consist of a telecommunication satellite broadband that will allow the distribution of any data using fixed and mobile stations. The architecture will be based on a Network Operation Centre with a master antenna and remote terminals. This network will allow the customer to have a complete broadband infrastructure that could be used to disseminate either Ground Network data (such as IP Multicast Internet Access, Web applications IP, Private Networks Sensor and network monitoring, Terrestrial Backup e disaster recovery, VoIP Video communications, Telemedicine and e-learning).

28 Possible structure for the ground monitoring and the links with the Data Centers and Local Observatories

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