19 th Century Ottoman Reforms Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) Reforms the army to make it more like those of Europe Introduces new weapons and tactics Army is trained by Europeans Defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Acre (1799) Janissary revolt in 1807 ends reforms
19 th Century Ottoman Reforms Mahmud II (1808-39) Begins reforms in 1826: Emphasizes artillery Changes government to be more bureaucratic and organized Creates some local legislatures Centralizes administration
19 th Century Ottoman Reforms Abdulmecid I (1839-61) and the Tanzimat Reforms It adopted the Western philosophy that a state was to o do for its people what the people wanted or needed and could not do for themselves....
Tanzimat Reforms Reform of Tax system (ended tax farming) New Commercial Code based on a French model Judicial reforms 1846: First meeting of a parliament
Young Turks Wanted constitution and democratic government Come to power in a 1909 Revolution
Islam and Democracy Ummathe community of believers Ulemathere are no clerics in Islam However: law comes from God
Ottoman Empire and War Goals The Ottoman Empire was one of two areas that had not been claimed by one Great Power or another. The fate of the Ottoman Empire was one of the important concerns during the war.
The Fourteen Points XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
British Commitments The Sykes-Picot agreement Divided the Ottoman Empire between Britain and France Hussein ibn Ali, Emir of the Hejaz: would be made Caliph Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, Emir of the Nejd: would be king of an Arab national- state Balfour Agreement
November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild,... "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may Prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour
Treaty of Sevres The Arabic speaking portions of the Ottoman Empire were to be divided between France and Britain. Palestine and Mesopotamia to Britain. Syria and Lebanon to France Arabia, Egypt and the Gulf coast would be under British influenced monarchs.
Turkey under Attaturk British occupy Turkey Greece invades Turkey to liberate Greek city-states Mustafa Kemal regroups Turkish army and begins war against occupying forces Kemal [Attaturk] tries to establish a secular state on a European model
Covenant of the League of Nations ARTICLE 22. [Mandates] To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant.
Covenant of the League of Nations The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League. The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances.
Covenant of the League of Nations Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.
Iraq (Mesopotamia) An ethnically and culturally diverse region. Tribal groups: Kurds and Bedouin Arabs, both Sunni and Shiite Nestorian (Assyrian) Christians Jews No sense of national identity. For local leadership, the British had to rely on former officers of the Ottoman army.
Pan-Arabism A response to the problems of modernization. Looks to the unification of all Arabs into a single national state. The United Arab Republic: Egypt, Syria and Iraq.
1956 Nasser Nationalizes Suez Canal Canal Company was owned by British and French stockholders. Britain, France and Israel join in a war to take back the canal and to overthrow Nasser. US and Soviet Union intervene. Egypt pays reparations for the canal.
1973: Yom Kippur War Egypt and Syria attack Israel to recover lost territory.
Peace with Egypt 1977: Pres. Sadat visits Jerusalem 1979: Camp David Agreement Why? Humiliation of war with Israel Cost of war Possibility of aid from US Abandons other Arab nations
The Islamist Alternative After Yom Kippur War, Egypt looses its leadership position. Secular nationalism and the Bath party are discredited. New emphasis on Islamic identity, not Arab identity.
Theorists Sayyid QutbEgypt Mawlana MawdudiPakistan Ruhollah KhomeiniIran
Wahabbi Mohammed Ibn Abd al-Wahab(1703- 1791) return to the basic Islam of the seventh century, that is, to a purely Arabic Islam He formed an alliance with Mohammed Ibn Saud This led to forming Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia and Wahabism With Yom Kippur War, Saudi Arabia becomes very wealthy. This money is used in part to support its brand of Islam around the world. Both mosques and schools are subsidized.
Problems for the Constitution Federation or National Government? Secular State? Islamic State? Role of Women? Oil Revenues
Political Identity Which comes first? Muslim Iraqi Shiite or Sunni Arab or Kurd Family or Tribe
Problems of Federation: Possible Breakup of the Country Turkey fears the formation of a Kurdish state US fears that Shiite state could become subordinate to Iran Sunni Arabs could join with Saudi Arabia
Problems of Federation: Oil Revenues Oil deposits are located in the Shiite region in the South in the Kurdish region in the North The Sunni region in the center is without oil reserves
De-Baathification Baathism Secular and nationalist movement Socialist and pan-Arabic Hussein turned it into a personality cult
Problems of De-Baathification Not all joined the Baath party because they believed in its views All government officials were Baathists The elite army units were Baathist
Problems of De-Baathification Remove too many Baathists and you remove people who have the technical expertise needed to run the country Remove too many Baathists and you have a large unemployment problem Remove too few Baathists and you have criminals at large
Problem of US and Imperialism To many the constitution is already suspect because it appears to be imposed by the US This perception will be strengthened if: US insists of separation of Mosque and State US insists on equal rights for women
Robert Pape: Suicide Terrorism...[M]odern suicide terrorism is best understood as an extreme strategy for national liberation against democracies with troops that pose an imminent threat to control territory the terrorist view as their homeland.
Suicide Bombings Pape finds that suicide terrorism: Is almost always directed against democracies Is a strategy consciously chosen by a weak group facing a stronger enemy Has a specific strategic objective Is nationalist, rather than religious Is almost always directed against an occupying foreign power
Opposition Elements Iraqi nationalists see US as occupying force Islamists see US as a crusader state Sunni muslims who would be a minority in an democratic Iraqi state
What are the US options? Stay the course How long a commitment? Will the US be perceived as an imperial power? How will this be perceived by Muslims in other states?
What are US options? Pull troops out now Could lead to civil war Civil war could easily expand into regional war
Points Islam and Democracy can be compatible Problem of a post-colonial state remain Need to allow the Iraqi state to evolve
Islam had been one of the dominant cultures of the world Muslims regard themselves as the inheritors of the biblical tradition. Muslims created one of the worlds great civilizations. While Europeans were in their Dark Age, Islam dominated Eurasia.
The Quran Recitations Believed to be literally the word of God
Teachings Radical Monotheism : one who submits : the Community of all Muslims
Five Pillars of Islam : There is no god but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet Prayer five times a day. : giving alms to the poor Fasting during Ramadan : if possible, a pilgrimage to Mecca once in ones life
Jihad struggle Struggle against ones desires Struggle against societys pressures Dar alislam Dar al harb
Sharia: Islamic Law : The path to be followed Law is regarded as divine Humans must submit to Gods law Law addresses ones actions Rewards and punishments in the afterlife
Sources of Sharia Quran Sunna from the Hadith Consensus of opinion Analogy Personal application of intellect
Ulema: Legal Scholars They are not a priesthood or clergy They are recognized for their learning and piety They are not officers of the government The government can enforce the rulings of the ulema A legal opinion
Fiqh: Jurisprudence Four schools of Law Hanafi Maliki Shafii Hanbali Agreement on about 75% of decisions
Sects: Sunni The majority of Muslims are Sunni : Path or way
Sects: Shia Recognize Mohammads son-in-law as legitimate successor Look to the example of Alis son Hussein Twelver Sect regards 11 Imams as successor Tend to place emphasis on poor and oppressed
Sects: Shia Traditionally regard politics as profane. The ulema (mullahs) therefore have little to do with the government.
Sects: Sufi Islamic Mysticism Mystical union with Allah could be taken as a claim of divinity Sufi can be Sunnis or Shias