Theory Background Dr. James J. Asher 1970 ’ s “ Learning Another Language Through Actions ”
The viewpoint of language Use imperative and concrete object to teach Asher indicates that human has a set of language acquisition device (LAD) When learners decode enough language, they will speak out without thinking
Teaching Objective Learning through actions Comprehension is more important than representation Learners should listen to more meaningful sentences and response in gesture
The viewpoint of instruction Trace theory- oral repeat, gesture or body action Humanism- learner ’ s emotion
The description of proper term Comprehension: In education, it has roughly the same meaning as understanding. understanding Action: A process or condition of acting or moving
Reference 廖曉青 (2002), 英語教學法 Asher. J. (1982). Learning Another Language Through Actions : the Complete Teacher ’ s Guide Book. Los Gatos, California: Sky Oaks Productions
First class Goal: students will be able to identify 6 parts of the body and learn the verb” point to” ex: point to your head/nose/ear… Material: no Vocabulary: head, nose, chin, ear, face, mouth Activities: listen and point Outcome: teachers will evaluate the students’ learning by playing games or make them do the actions individually
Second class Review: mouth Touch your chin head nose ear face
Second class Teach: Stand up Sit down Point to the wall ceiling door chair table floor
Second class Teach: go to school Walk to the classroom → Open the door → Close the door → Walk to your seat → Put down your school bag → Sit down → Take out your textbook
T P R class arrange Goal : our goal is to let the beginners have the initial speaking skill and the comprehension is the way to achieve this goal. How many vocabulary items in one lesson: Nine new vocabulary items in one lesson is an average achievable goal
Ask for/expect no oral participation If you do have a student with some very limited oral production skills in your class, he is probably going to want to recite along with you. You will need to persuade him to do it with his mouth only and not voice his sounds so that other class members listen only to native speaker modeling. Don’t encourage verbal responses from the students – only actions.
The roles teacher and students play Teacher is like a director of a drama. Students are like the performers. Teacher will issue the command and students are just the passive receivers Teacher shouldn’t correct too much about students’ mistakes and shouldn’t interrupt students’ speech by correcting the mistakes, because this will hinder them.
Material TPR usually doesn’t have material. But in the later part, material becomes more important. As for beginners, teacher doesn’t use the material, because teacher’s voice, actions and gestures are enough for teaching activities.
Teaching activities The teacher uses the imperative form of the verb throughout (Point to … Walk to …Touch the etc.) Teacher have to notice that when we make a command, we need to make it proper order. First, teacher should follow the principle of listening first and speaking later on. Second, we should let the command chronologically
Teaching steps Every TPR lesson needs to include four steps: 1)Review 2)teaching/learning. 3)practices or rehearsal. 4)testing or evaluation.
Advantages SStress-free LLong-term retention EEasy to implement/no translation NNew playing field: no disadvantage for academically weaker students
TTrains students to react to language and not think about it too much RRepetition is disguised: more effective input DDifferent style of teaching/learning
Disadvantages SStudents who are not used to such things might find it embarrassing. IIt is only really suitable for beginner levels. YYou can't teach everything with it. TTPR is not a complete method but a teaching skill.