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Care of G. Battimelli, L. Benussi, E. Boscolo, P. Gianotti, G

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Presentation on theme: "Care of G. Battimelli, L. Benussi, E. Boscolo, P. Gianotti, G"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Care of G. Battimelli, L. Benussi, E. Boscolo, P. Gianotti, G. Mazzitelli, M. Moulson, C. Petrascu, B. Sciascia, with the support of the Scientific Information Service (SIS)

2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
The INFN: promotes, coordinates and performs scientific research in subnuclear, nuclear and astroparticle physics, as well as the research and technological development necessary for activities in these sectors, in close collaboration with universities, and within a framework of international cooperation

3 The origins of the INFN Enrico Fermi and the “Boys of Via Panisperna” conducted a series of fundamental nuclear physics experiments at the Isitiuto di Fisica at the University of Rome in the 1930s. Fermi realized that continuing progress in the field would require costly instruments and technical infrastructure (e.g., accelerators). Fermi (in Rome) and Bruno Rossi (in Florence) sought to establish an “Istituto Nazionale di Fisica” in the 1930s. Because of the war, this was impossible until Edoardo Amaldi worked to found the INFN in 1951. Amaldi D’Agostino Fermi Segrè Rasetti

4 1951 1957 4 University Sections Milan, Turin, Padua, and Rome
Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Frascati The origins of the INFN

5 INFN oggi Gran Sasso Legnaro VIRGO-EGO European Gravitational
Milano Bicocca VIRGO-EGO European Gravitational Observatory 20 Sections 11 Affiliated Groups 4 National Laboratories Laboratori del Sud (Catania)

6 What do we do at LNF? Fundamental research
Study the microscopic structure of matter Fundamental research Develop and construct particle detectors Search for gravitational waves Develop theoretical models Study and develop accelerating techniques Perform material studies and biomedical research with synchrotron light Develop and support computing systems and networks

7 The history of the Universe

8 The scientific method The modern scientific method was first formally introduced by Galileo Observation Hypothesis Prediction Galileo Galilei

9 The modern understanding of matter stems from centuries of inquiry
What is matter made of? The modern understanding of matter stems from centuries of inquiry Ancient Greeks: 4 elements John Dalton: Atomic Therory (1805): The chemical elements are made of atoms. The atoms of an element are identical in mass. Atoms of different elements have different masses. Atoms combine only in whole-number ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:3, etc.) Atoms can not be created or destroyed.

10 The periodic table In 1869, Mendeleev introduces the periodic table and predicts the existence of elements not yet discovered

11 Seeing the invisible In 1898, Thomson discovered the electron and hypothesized that the electrons are uniformly distributed within the atom, like rasins in rasin bread - The Thomson atom In , Rutherford and colleagues tested this hypothesis by bombarding a gold foil with alpha particles. Some scattered at large angles, indicating the presence of a heavy nucleus. The Rutherford atom

12 Observation Observing objects around us is like performing a “Rutherford” experiment Detector Accelerator Source Observer Particle Beam Light Object Target In the microscopic world, the target and beam have similar dimensions

13 Observation 10-10 m The wavelength of visible light is 400 to 800 nm (i.e., ~10-7 m) To see atoms (and smaller) we need a smaller probe!

14 Particle sources Rutherford used alpha particles from the decay of radioactive elements. To obtain particle beams of different types and energies, today we construct particle accelerators. Particle beams start out from a source. The simplest example is electrons emitted by a hot filament, as in a lightbulb. Particles acquire energy when they are accelerated by an electric field +

15 The Frascati Electron Synchrotron 1959-1975

16 Experiments using fixed targets
synchrotron target S L detectors p+/- e-,e+,p … LINAC p, n, etc Matter is mainly empty All particles which do not interact are lost Energy is lost to moving the center of mass “Target” is a nucleus, with a complex structure

17 A new approach: Use colliding beams
detector Bruno Touschek, Frascati, 1960 Accumulation ring The non-interacting particles can be reused in successive rounds Collisions are performed in the center-of-mass frame The circulating particles can be either elementary or complex (nuclei or atoms)

18 A related idea: Collide particle and antiparticle
m- m+ e+ e- E = 2mm c2 E = 2me c2 E = 2mt c2 E = m c2 The larger the energy, the greater the number of particles that can be studied

19 Matter-antimatter colliders
LEP at CERN (Geneva) 1988 LHC at CERN: operating since 2009 ADONE at Frascati in 1969 DAFNE ADA at Frascati in 1959

20 The “Phantom of the Opera”
The Standard Model Fermions Bosons e electron ne e-neutrino d down up u I m muon n m-neutrino s strange c charm II t tau n t-neutrino b bottom top III g gluon Gravity The “Phantom of the Opera” Quarks g photon Force Carriers Z boson W Leptons Matter families Higgs boson ?

21 The fundamental forces
Intensity Effect Gravitational 1 Keeps you on your chair Z boson W Weak decays: n p + e- + n Weak 1029 Electromagnetic 1040 Holds atoms together g photon The fundamental particles interact via four forces, each very different from the others, particularly in the effective range and intensity. If one arbitrarily specifies the strength of the gravitational force as 1… g gluon Holds nuclei together Strong 1043


23 Physics at DAΦNE Out of the electron-positron collisions, a ϕ meson can be produced. It decays immediately into two other particles, the K-mesons (kaons). The two kaons can be either neutral or oppositely charged. K e- e+ e- e+ e- e+ e- e- e+ e+ e- e+ e- e+ e- e- e+ e- K The kaons are used by the experiments (KLOE, FINUDA, etc.) At DAΦNE, up to kaons per second are produced

24 Kaonic atoms Kaonic hydrogen (DEAR - Siddharta) n=1 p n=2 n=25 K-
2p  1s (Ka ) X ray of interest In the DEAR experiment, the strong force is investigated by studying kaonic atoms, in which a K- substitutes an atomic electron.

25 FINUDA (Fisica Nucleare a DAΦNE)
In the FINUDA experiment, the strong force is studied by placing a “foreign body” inside the nucleus p n L Hypernucleus u d u d u s u s d K- n  L p- Reconstruction of a hypernuclear event in the FINUDA detector

26 KLOE (K LOng Experiment)
KLOE studies the differences between matter and antimatter, by looking at kaon (and antikaon) decays

27 DAΦNE-Luce Synchrotron light is the radiation emitted when a charged particle’s path is bent by a magnetic field. This radiation is very useful for studies in: Biophysics and medicine Solid state physics and electronics Materials science photon

28 SPARC Originally a by-product, synchrotron light has become a powerful scientific tool. It is now produced on purpose for various uses (Sorgente Pulsata Auto-amplificata di Radiazione Coerente) is a project with 4 principal beamlines, aimed at the development of an X-ray source of very high brilliance (energy emitted per unit solid angle) 150 MeV Advanced Photo-Injector Production of an electron beam and compression by magnetic and radiofrequency systems SASE-FEL Visible-VUV Experiment For the study of beam-transport systems X-ray source X-ray monochromator

29 Coherent, monochromatic waves
Incoherent radiation Coherent radiation Coherent, monochromatic waves Fixed wavelength and fixed relative phase Equivalent to many, many waves superimposed

30 FLAME (Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments) is an extremely high power laser source (300 TW), with bursts lasting 20 fs and a frequency of 10 Hz. The LI2FE laboratory By combining the SPARC electron beam with the FLAME laser, we produce a unique monochromatic X-ray source. This can be used to produce high quality medical images using less radiation. LI2FE is an interdisciplinary laboratory inaugurated in Frascati in December 2010.

31 A distortion in the fabric of space
The force of gravity A distortion in the fabric of space

32 Gravitational waves: an analogy
Hi! How are you? antenna Electromagnetic waves are produced by an electric charge when accelerated Gravitational waves: an analogy Gravitational waves are produced by masses that undergo acceleration

33 Gravitational waves Gravitational waves are 1040 times less intense than electromagnetic waves

34 Search for gravitational waves: NAUTILUS
Supernova in our galaxy h=10-18 Supernova in Virgo h=10-21 Thermal T=300 K, DL=10-16 m Thermal T=3 K, DL=10-17 m Thermal T=300 mK  DL=10-18 m

35 GW detectors around the world

36 The DAΦNE upgrade Increased horizontal beam-crossing
DAFNE Increased horizontal beam-crossing angle:12mrad  25 mrad DAFNE Upgrade Reduced horizontal and vertical beam dimensions

37 The future of LNF DAΦNE is at the end of its scientific program, but using the skills and experience acquired, we are designing a new “particle factory” of higher energy and luminosity. The SuperB project has been chosen by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research as a flagship project for Italian research.

38 Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, info:

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