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**A Free Electron Laser Project at LNF**

Massimo Ferrario INFN - LNF & the SPARC/X Team prova

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**Synchrotron Radiation Free Electron Laser (FEL) **

Outline Atomic Laser Synchrotron Radiation Free Electron Laser (FEL) SPARC - SPARXINO - SPARX Applications prova

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**Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation**

Atomic Laser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Spontaneous Emission Stimulated Emission prova

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**Properties of Stimulated Emission**

The photon which is emitted in the stimulated emission process is identical to the incoming photon. They both have: 1. Identical wavelengths - Monochromaticity. 2. Identical directions in space - Directionality. 3. Identical phase - Coherence. prova

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**1. Well known and proven technology. 2. One Laser One Color. **

Atomic Laser 1. Well known and proven technology. 2. One Laser One Color. 3. Limited by Mirrors ==> No X rays. prova

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Cosmic MASER

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**Synchrotron Radiation**

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**Charged particle moving on a circle**

Radiation Simulator – T. prova

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Pulse Duration prova

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**Cut-Off Frequency of the Spectrum**

Revolution Frequency N Cut-Off Frequency of the Spectrum prova

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Undulator Radiation prova

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Undulator Radiation The electron trajectory is determined by the undulator field and the electron energy The electron trajectory is inside the radiation cone if prova

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**Relativistic Mirrors TUNABILITY Counter propagating pseudo-radiation**

Compton back-scattered radiation in the moving mirror frame Doppler effect in the laboratory frame TUNABILITY prova

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**Radiation Simulator – T. Shintake, @ http://www-xfel. spring8. or**

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Nu = 5 { { { { { Due to the finite duration the radiation is not monochromatic but contains a frequency spectrum which is obtained by Fourier transformation of a truncated plane wave prova

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Spectral Intensity Line width prova

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**WE NEED micro-BUNCHING !**

Peak power of accelerated charge: different electrons radiate indepedently hence the total power depends linearly on the number Ne of electrons per bunch: Incoherent Spontaneous Radiation Power: Coherent Stimulated Radiation Power: WE NEED micro-BUNCHING ! prova

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High Gain FEL Consider“seeding”by an external light source with wavelength r The light wave is co-propagating with the relativistic electron beam Energy exchange occurs only if there is transverse motion prova

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**if the flight time delay is exactly one radiation period:**

After one wiggler period the electron sees the radiation with the same phase if the flight time delay is exactly one radiation period: In a resonant and randomly phased electron beam, nearly one half electrons absorb energy and half lose enrgy, with no net gain The particles bunch around a phase for which there is no coupling with the radiation prova

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**Newton Lorentz Equations**

Question: can there be a continuous energy transfer from electron beam to light wave? Answer: We need a Self Consistent Treatment Newton Lorentz Equations Maxwell Equations l /2 t>0 t=0 Optical potential prova

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**Result: collective instability, exponential growth of radiation power.**

The electron beam acts as a dielectric medium which slows down the phase velocity of the ponderomotive field compared to the average electron longitudinal velocity. Hence resonant electrons bunch around a phase corresponding to gain. The particles within a micro-bunch radiate coherently. The resulting strong radiationfield enhances the micro-bunching even further. Result: collective instability, exponential growth of radiation power. Even if there is no external seeding: Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission prova

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**SASE Saturation Results**

LEUTL APS/ANL 385 nm September 2000 Since September 2000: 3 SASE FEL’s demonstrate saturation TTF-FEL DESY 98 nm VISA ATF/BNL 840 nm March 2001 prova

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TTF FEL LEUTLE prova

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**SASE Longitudinal coherence**

ζ independent processes Slippage length The radiation “slips” over the electrons for a distance Nurad prova

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SASE Courtesy L. Giannessi (Perseo in 1D mode prova

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SEEDING Courtesy L. Giannessi (Perseo in 1D mode prova

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**High Brightness Electron Beams**

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**Linear Accelerators PRINCIPIO:**

Le particelle emesse da un filamento vengono accelerate dal campo elettrico longitudinale generato da elettrodi susseguenti. prova

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**Linear Radio-Frequency Accelerators**

fascio Campo elettrico prova

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**Electron Photo-Injector**

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**SPARC - SPARXINO - SPARX**

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**GENESIS simulation of the SPARC SASE-FEL**

Radiation power growth along the 530 nm prova

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SPARC DESY BNL UCLA SLAC UE MOU EUROFEL prova

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**SPARC Injector + DAFNE Linac a <10 nm SASE FEL source at LNF**

SPARXINO a <10 nm SASE FEL source at LNF Energy [GeV] cr [nm] I = 1 kA K = 3 e = 0.1 % n=4 n=1 prova

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The FEL Applications prova

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**Scientific case: new research frontiers in**

Atomic, molecular and cluster physics Plasma and warm dense matter Condensed matter physics Material science Femtosecond chemistry Life science Single Biological molecules and clusters Imaging/holography Micro and nano lithography Short Pulses prova

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**Free Electron Lasers: applicazioni**

diminuire la lunghezza d’onda (λ-> raggi X) Impulsi ultra-corti aumentare potenza media (per λ nell’ IR-UV) Applicazioni mediche e industriali Struttura della materia,ad es. Dinamica delle molecole, reazioni chimiche prova

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**used spark photography to freeze this ‘ultra-fast’ process**

E. Muybridge at L. Stanford in 1878 disagree whether all feet leave the ground during gallop… E. Muybridge used spark photography to freeze this ‘ultra-fast’ process E. Muybridge, Animals in Motion, ed. L. S. Brown (Dover Pub. Co., New York 1957) Courtesy Paul Emma (SLAC). prova

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**Coulomb Explosion of Lysozyme (50 fs)**

Single Molecule Imaging with Intense X-rays Atomic and molecular dynamics occur at the fsec-scale J. Hajdu, Uppsala U. prova

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**X-FEL based on last 1-km of existing SLAC linac**

LCLS at SLAC Å X-FEL based on last 1-km of existing SLAC linac prova

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**TESLA XFEL at DESY 0.85-60 Å X-FEL Integrated into linear collider**

user facility Å multiple undulators X-FEL Integrated into linear collider prova

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THE END

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