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Theories of Management

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1 Theories of Management
Classical Behavioral Management Science Systems Theory Sociotechnical Theory Contingency Theory 1

2 I. Classical School ( ) Emphasized a rational, scientific approach to study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines Scientific Management Administrative /Bureaucratic Organizations 3

3 Scientific Management
Develop a standard method for performing each job Select appropriate workers Train workers in standard method Plan work and eliminate interruptions Provide incentives for increased output. 4

4 Scientific Management Pioneers
*Frederick W. Taylor: Father of Scientific Mgt. *Frank & Lillian Gilbreth: (Time & motion studies and many mgt. and HR techniques) *Henry Gantt: Gantt Charts 5

5 Administrative Principles
*Henri Fayol: Father of Administrative Mgt. Principles of Management Five basic management functions Planning, Organizing. Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling * Chester Barnard: Authority and Power * Mary Parker Follet: Human Relations 7

6 Bureaucratic Organizations
*Max Weber: Father of Bureaucracy Clearly defined formal authority and responsibility 6

7 II. Behavioral Theory (1924- )
*Elton Mayo: Hawthorne Studies and the Hawthorne Effect! *Abraham Maslow: Need Hierarchy *Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Y 14

8 Behavioral Science Approach application of social sciences
Anthropology Economics Psychology Sociology Motivation Communication Leadership Group processes 21

9 III. Management Science (1940-)
Management information systems (MIS). Forecasting Inventory control Linear and nonlinear programming Queuing theory Scheduling Simulation Breakeven analysis 22

10 IV. Systems Theory (1950s-) Inputs Outputs Transformation
* Products/services * Profits/losses * Employee satisfaction *Human resources *Financial resources *Physical resources *Informational 24

11 V. Sociotechnical Theory (1950s/1960s-)
Sociotechnical Systems (STS) 23

12 Contingency Theory (1960s/1970s-)
Case View: “Every situation is unique” Contingency View: Organizational phenomena exist in logical patterns. Managers devise and apply similar responses to common types of problems Universalist: “One best way” 25

13 Comparing Theories

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