Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Religion. Chapter Outline Defining Religion The Significance of Religion in U.S. Society Forms of Religion Sociological Theories of Religion."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Outline Defining Religion The Significance of Religion in U.S. Society Forms of Religion Sociological Theories of Religion Globalization: World Religions and Religious Diversity Diversity and Religious Belief
Chapter Outline Race and Religion Ethnicity and Religion Religious Organizations Becoming Religious Social and Political Attitudes: The Impact of Religion Religion and Social Change
Defining Elements of Religion 1. Religion is institutionalized. 2. Religion is a feature of groups. 3. Religions are based on beliefs that are considered sacred, as distinguished from profane.
Defining Elements of Religion 4. Religion establishes values and moral proscriptions for behavior. 5. Religion establishes norms for behavior. 6. Religion provides answers to questions of ultimate meaning, as distinguished from secular beliefs.
Religion in U.S. Society The U.S. is one of the most religious societies in the world. 2/3 of Americans think religion can solve all or most of society’s problems. 37% percent of the population describe themselves as “born again”. 82% of Americans believe in life after death.
Religions in the U.S. Percentage of people in the U.S. who identify as: Protestant - 57% Catholic - 24% Jewish - 2 % People with diverse religions - 8% No religious identification - 8%
Durkheim: The Functions of Religion Religion is functional for society: Reaffirms the social bonds between people. Creates social cohesion and integration through religious rituals. Binds individuals to society by establishing a collective consciousness.
Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism The Protestant faith supported the development of capitalism. Material wealth meant one was favored by God, motivating Protestants to work to confirm their salvation. Value judgments about those who haven’t succeeded can be traced to influence of religion.
Marx: Religion, Social Conflict, and Oppression Religion legitimates the social order and supports the ideas of the ruling class. Oppressed people develop religion to soothe them and it prevents them from rising up against oppression. Religion can be the basis for social change or social continuity.
Sociological Theories of Religion: Functionalism Religion and the Social Order An integrative force in society. Religious BeliefsPromote order by a sense of collective consciousness. Religious Practices and Rituals Reinforce a sense of social belonging
Sociological Theories of Religion: Conflict Theory Religion and the Social Order Reflects inequality in society. Religious Beliefs Can provide legitimation for oppressive social conditions. Religious Practices and Rituals Define in-groups and out-groups, thereby defining group boundaries.
Sociological Theories of Religion: Symbolic Interaction Religion and the Social Order Is socially constructed and emerges with social and historical change. Religious BeliefsSocially constructed and subject to interpretation; can also be learned through religious conversion. Religious Practices and Rituals Symbolic activities that provide definitions of group and individual identity.
Three Types of Religious Organizations Churches - formal organizations that are seen by society as primary and legitimate religious institutions. Sects - groups that have broken off from an established church. Cults - religious groups devoted to a specific cause or a leader with charisma.
Religion and Social Change Evangelical groups linked to conservative political causes have influenced national elections. Religion has had an important part in the civil rights movement and feminism.