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California Friendly ® Landscape Training Irrigation System Troubleshooting The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Family of Southern.

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Presentation on theme: "California Friendly ® Landscape Training Irrigation System Troubleshooting The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Family of Southern."— Presentation transcript:

1 California Friendly ® Landscape Training Irrigation System Troubleshooting The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Family of Southern California Water Agencies

2 California Friendly ® Landscape Training Workshop 1: Irrigation Principles & System Adjustment and Repair Workshop 2: Irrigation System Troubleshooting Workshop 3: Controller Programming Workshop 4: Irrigation Scheduling

3 Today’s Workshop Irrigation System Troubleshooting Electrical Concepts Field Skills Electrical System Mechanical Operation Troubleshooting Steps

4 Water Efficient Devices Smart Sprinkler ControllersSmart Sprinkler Controllers Rotating Nozzles Synthetic Turf

5 Goal of Today’s Workshop To open and close the valve with the irrigation controller! Controller Valves

6 Electrical Concepts Current Voltage Resistance All these are related, but they’re not the same thing!

7 Current Current is the movement or flow of electrons Amps Current activates the valve solenoid Current: rate of speed of electrons Wire

8 Voltage Voltage is the force that pushes electrons through the wire Volts (VAC or VDC) Voltage: Force that pushes electrons Wire

9 Types of Voltage Direct Current (VDC) Flow is in one direction from batteries Alternating Current (VAC) Flow alternates direction – typical electrical systems

10 Resistance Resistance to flow of electrons Affected by wire size and length Measured in Ohms (symbol Ω) Higher Resistance lowers amount of Current to Solenoid! Wire Smaller Wire

11 For Troubleshooting... Need to measure Voltage (Volts) to check the Controller Need to measure Resistance (Ohms Ω) to check the wiring, solenoid, and connections Controller Valves

12 Typical Electrical System Common Wire Irrigation Controller Valve Solenoid(s) 110 VAC 24-28 VAC With Step-Down Transformer

13 Controller 110 VAC supply voltage – very dangerous! Flows through step-down transformer 24 VAC Volts output to control valves Controller switches open and close valve circuits

14 Typical Voltage 110 VAC Supply to Controller 24 VAC From Controller to Valves

15 Measurements Volt-Ohm Meter Multi-Meter “Check Mate”

16 Voltage Measurements Meter Setting Probe Placement Safety

17 120 Volts – very dangerous! Experienced personnel only 24 Volts – not dangerous But be careful – work with caution

18 Measuring Voltage - VAC Tip: disconnect the common wire from the terminal

19 Input and Output Voltage Controller Valves Input 110 VAC Output 24-28 VAC

20 Voltage Output Problems If less than 24 Volts: The controller station switch may be faulty If more than 28 Volts: The transformer may be faulty – may need to replaced If voltage output is OK, check field circuitry next...

21 Control Circuit Two Wires Control Wire Switched, Open or Closed Common Wire Control Wires Common Wire

22 Measure Resistance to Check Circuits Resistance in Wire (Conductors) Resistance to electrical movement Wire size and length Units – OHM (  )

23 Resistance Readings Wire - 1,000 feet of 14 gauge wire 3 Ohms (approx.) Solenoids – different manufacturers 20 to 60 Ohms for most solenoids Some have very high readings (Griswold)

24 Resistance of Solenoid

25 Wiring Problems Broken Wires Inside the Solenoid Control Wire Common Wire Bad Connections Solenoids Junction Boxes At the Controller Damaged Wires During Installation Other construction done after installation of wires (fences, trenches, etc.) Tree Roots Animals Wiring problems that resist the amount of current to the solenoid

26 Steps and Safety Power OFF! Damage the multi-meter Tip: disconnect common Set meter scale high One probe at common wire Other probe at control wire Begin test

27 Resistance Reading

28 Circuit Condition 1. 1.Closed – Complete/Good Circuit 2. 2.Open Circuit – Fault 3. 3.Partial Open Circuit – Fault 4. 4.Short Circuit – Fault

29 1. Complete (Closed) Circuit Functioning properly Proper flow of electricity between Controller and Control Valves There are no wire breaks, shorts, or bad connections

30 Typical Response Closed/Complete Circuit: Resistance Reading: 20-60 Ohms – Normal Complete Circuit

31 2. Open Circuit Fault There’s a break in the circuit Break in the wiring Break inside the solenoid A connection came apart

32 Typical Response Open Circuit Fault: Maximum Resistance, infinite Ohms 1 on left side of display (digital meters) This circuit will not operate Open Circuit

33 3. Partial Connection Circuit wires make partial connection at: Controller Control Valve No waterproof connectors Nicked or damaged wires (not completely broken)

34 Typical Response Partial Connections Fault: Resistance: higher than normal Ohms Erratic system performance Partial Connection

35 4. Short Circuit Fault Common wire and Station (Control) wire make contact Solenoid interior coil wires make contact

36 Typical Response Short Circuit Fault: Fuse will burn or breaker will trip Resistance Reading: 0 to 10 Ohms This circuit may come on with other valves Short Circuit

37 Circuit ConditionResistance - Ohms 1. Closed Circuit20-60 Ω 2. Open CircuitMaximum Ω 3. Partial ConnectionHigher than normal 4. Short Circuit0-10 Ω Summary of Circuit Conditions

38 Waterproof Connectors

39 Black Box Exercise Notes: Simulation of circuit conditions Closed Circuits Open Circuits Partial Connections Short Circuits

40 ? Questions? Electrical Troubleshooting

41 Mechanical Troubleshooting Water Supply Valve Operation

42 Valve – Closed

43 Valve – Opening

44 Valve – Open

45 Flow Control Valve Body Bleeder Screw Valve Spring Diaphragm Inlet Port Outlet Port Valve Seat Stopper

46 Common Valve Problems Cracked diaphragm Broken spring Plugged inlet port Calcium deposits inside solenoid Rocks or debris on stopper seat

47 Valve will not Open Insufficient Voltage Hole on the diaphragm (Reverse Flow Valves) Flow stem is closed Plunger is stuck or missing Outlet port is plugged Bad Solenoid

48 Valve will not Close Hole on the diaphragm (forward flow valve) Debris on the valve seat Flow stem turned up too high Inlet port gets plugged during operation

49 Valve Assembly Class Exercises Disassemble Valve Reassemble Valve

50 Wiring from Top of Valve Removed

51 Screwing off Top of the Valve

52 Spring Removed from Valve

53 Diaphragm

54 Empty Valve Housing

55 Reassembled Valve

56 Look for the obvious first Is the water turned on? Is the controller plugged in? Is the timer programmed correctly? Is there an isolation valve?

57 ? Questions?

58 California Friendly ® Landscape Training Your hosting water agency would like to thank you for being water conscious and attending this Workshop

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