Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS A CLAIM? A claim is a statement (spoken or written) that something is the case. Ex: He claimed that his grandfather was a famous actor during the."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS A CLAIM? A claim is a statement (spoken or written) that something is the case. Ex: He claimed that his grandfather was a famous actor during the 1950s. In order for anyone to take your claim seriously, it has to be backed by facts and/or evidence.
WHAT IS REASONING? Reasoning is the act of thinking about something in a logical, sensible way. Ex: He explained his reasoning behind his decision to quit the team. In order to persuade or convince someone that your claim or argument is correct, you must provide sound reasoning.
WHEN YOU THINK OF THE WORD ARGUMENT, WHAT COMES TO YOUR MIND?
- An argument is a logical way of presenting a belief, conclusion, or stance - A good argument is always supported with reasoning and evidence -An argument can be used for many purposes, such as to change the reader’s/listener’s point of view or opinion, or to bring about an action or a response from a reader/listener.
3 MAIN PURPOSES OF A FORMAL ARGUMENT 1)To change the reader’s/listener’s mind 2)To convince the reader/listener to accept what is written/spoken 3)To motivate the reader/listener to take action, based on what is written/spoken
WHERE DO WE SEE ARGUMENTS? You may not realize it, but arguments are commonly seen in advertisements. - Advertisements attempt to: 1)Persuade an audience to buy a product or service 2)Accept an idea 3)Support a cause
Several common types of advertisements are: 1)Public-Service Announcements 2)Billboards 3)Merchandise Ads 4)Service Ads 5)Political Campaign Literature
PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES 3 FORMAL PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES: 1.Appeal to Authority- using the opinions of experts and well-known people 2.Appeal to Emotion- using words that convey strong feeling 3. Appeal to Reason- using logical arguments backed by statistics and facts
PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES Persuasive techniques are ways to convince a reader/listener to think, act, or feel a certain way (usually in a way that benefits you or your cause). There are 6 main persuasive techniques, and while they are often found in advertisements, they should be avoided in formal arguments (e.g. an essay)
BANDWAGON APPROACH -Appeals to a person’s desire to belong Ex: Anyone with any sense will vote for Richard Rock
ANTI-BANDWAGON APPROACH -Encourages or celebrates individuality Ex: Vote your conscience – an election is not a popularity contest.
EMOTIONAL APPEAL -Evokes people’s fear, anger, or desire Ex: Without working smoke detectors, your family is in danger.
ENDORSEMENT/TESTIMONY -Employs a well-known person to promote a product or idea Ex: I use this toothpaste, and it brightens my movie-star smile.”
LOADED LANGUAGE -The use of words that are charged with emotion Ex: These poor, innocent children are going to starve unless you donate to our charity.
HYPERBOLE -Exaggeration to make a point Ex: Our candidate does the work of ten people!