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Mechanics of Materials – MAE 243 (Section 002) Spring 2008 Dr. Konstantinos A. Sierros

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8. Applications of plane stress (Pressure vessels, Beams and Combined loadings) Plane stress is a common stress condition that exists in all ordinary structures, including buildings, machines, vehicles and aircraft In this chapter we will investigate some practical applications involving plane stress (make sure you revise sections 7.2-7.5 very well!!!) We will start with pressure vessels by determining the stresses and strains in the walls of these structures caused because of the internal pressures from the compressed gases or liquids

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8.2: Spherical pressure vessels Pressure vessels are closed structures containing liquids or gases under pressure Examples include tanks, pipes, beverage containers and pressurized cabins in aircraft and space vehicles If pressure vessels have walls that are thin in comparison to their overall dimensions they are known as shell structures In this section we consider thin – walled (r/t>10) pressure vessels of spherical shape Fig. 8.1) Spherical pressure vessel FIG. 8-2 Cross section of spherical pressure vessel showing inner radius r, wall thickness t, and internal pressure p

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8.2: Spherical pressure vessels FIG. 8-3 Tensile stresses σ in the wall of a spherical pressure vessel Formula for calculating the tensile stresses in the wall of a spherical shell The wall of a pressurized spherical vessel is subjected to uniform tensile stresses σ in all directions (because of spherical symmetry) Stresses that act tangentially to the curved surface of a shell are known as membrane stresses. The name arises from the fact that these are the only stresses that exist in true membranes, such as thin polymer films, soap films etc

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8.2: Stresses at the outer surface FIG. 8-4 Stresses in a spherical pressure vessel at (a) the outer surface and (b) the inner surface Element in fig 8-4(a) is in biaxial stress. No in-plane shear stresses acting on the thin element Every plane is a principal plane and every direction is a principal direction Principal stresses for the elementOut of plane maximum shear stresses

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8.2: General comments 1.The wall thickness must be small in comparison to the outer dimensions. Ratio r/t should be greater than 10 2.The internal pressure must exceed the external pressure in order to avoid inward buckling 3.We consider the effects of internal pressure only. The effects of external loads, reactions, the weight of the contents and the weight of the structure are not considered 4.The formulas derived in this section are valid throughout the wall of the vessel except near points of stress concentration * Study example 8.1

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8.3: Cylindrical pressure vessels Cylindrical pressure vessels with a circular cross-section are found in industrial settings (compressed air tanks, rocket motors), in homes (fire extinguishers, spray cans) and in the countryside (propane tanks, grain silos) Pressurized pipes are also classified as cylindrical pressure vessels

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8.3: Circumferential and longitudinal stress The stress σ 1 is called the circumferential stress or the hoop stress The stress σ 2 is called the longitudinal stress or the axial stress

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8.3: Stresses at the outer surface * Study example 8.2 The principal stresses σ 1 and σ 2 at the outer surface of the cylindrical vessel are shown on the stress element in fig 8- 8(a) where σ 3 = 0 (i.e. biaxial stress state) The maximum out of plane shear stresses is;

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QUIZ: Mohr’s circle Monday, 7 April 2008 Duration: 20 mins 1 question to answer

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