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Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III

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1 Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III
Chapter 3 Quality Management Operations Management - 5th Edition Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III

2 Meaning of Quality Webster’s Dictionary American Society for Quality
Degree of excellence of a thing American Society for Quality Totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs Google’s Definition? Are there different perspectives?

3 Meaning of Quality: Consumer’s Perspective
Fitness for use How well product or service does what it is supposed to Quality of design Designing quality characteristics into a product or service A Mercedes sports car and a Ford truck are equally “fit for use,” but with different design dimensions

4 Dimensions of Quality What are some of the dimensions of quality for a manufactured product? What about for a service? Do they differ? If yes, should they? If no, why not?

5 Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products
Performance Basic operating characteristics of a product; how well a car handles or its gas mileage Features “Extra” items added to basic features, such as a leather interior in a car Reliability Probability that a product will operate properly within an expected time frame; that is, a TV will work without repair for about seven years

6 Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont.)
Conformance Degree to which a product meets pre–established standards Durability How long product lasts before replacement What’s the life expectancy of the tires on your car? Serviceability Ease of getting repairs, speed of repairs, courtesy and competence of repair person iPhone, anyone?

7 Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont.)
Aesthetics How a product looks, feels, sounds, smells, or tastes Safety Assurance that customer will not suffer injury or harm from a product; an especially important consideration for automobiles Perceptions Subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, etc.

8 Dimensions of Quality: Service
Time and Timeliness How long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? Is an overnight package delivered overnight? Completeness Is everything customer asked for provided? Is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered?

9 Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.)
Courtesy How are customers treated by employees? Are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? Consistency Is the same level of service provided to each customer each time? Is your newspaper delivered on time every morning?

10 Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.)
Accessibility and convenience How easy is it to obtain service? Does a service representative answer you calls quickly? Accuracy Is the service performed right every time? Is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? Responsiveness How well does the company react to unusual situations? How well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions? What about Internet-based service – does it differ?

11 Meaning of Quality: Producer’s Perspective
Quality of Conformance Making sure a product or service is produced according to design If new tires do not conform to specifications, they wobble If a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in, the hotel is not functioning according to specifications of its design

12 Meaning of Quality: A Final Perspective
Consumer’s and producer’s perspectives depend on each other Consumer’s perspective: PRICE Producer’s perspective: COST Consumer’s view must dominate Why?

13 Producer’s Perspective Consumer’s Perspective
Meaning of Quality Fitness for Consumer Use Producer’s Perspective Consumer’s Perspective Quality of Conformance Conformance to specifications Cost Quality of Design Quality characteristics Price Marketing Production Meaning of Quality

14 Total Quality Management
Commitment to quality throughout the organization Principles of TQM Customer-oriented Leadership Strategic planning Employee responsibility Continuous improvement Cooperation Statistical methods Training and education

15 Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle
1. Plan Identify problem and develop plan for improvement. 2. Do Implement plan on a test basis. 3. Study/Check Assess plan; is it working? 4. Act Institutionalize improvement; continue cycle.

16 Quality Improvement and Role of Employees
Should employees be involved? Participative problem solving Employees involved in quality management Every employee has undergone extensive training to provide quality service to Disney’s guests

17 Quality Circle Organization Training Presentation
Implementation Monitoring Solution Problem results Problem Analysis Cause and effect Data collection and analysis Problem Identification List alternatives Consensus Brainstorming Training Group processes Data collection Problem analysis Organization 8-10 members Same area Supervisor/moderator

18 Strategic Implications of TQM
Strong leadership Goals, vision, or mission Operational plans and policies Mechanism for feedback

19 Six Sigma A process for developing and delivering near perfect products and services Measure of how much a process deviates from perfection 3.4 defects per million opportunities Champion An executive responsible for project success

20 Black Belts and Green Belts
Project leader Master Black Belt A teacher and mentor for Black Belts Green Belts Project team members

cost = 25% of sales 3.4 DPMO

22 TQM in Service Companies
Principles of TQM apply equally well to services and manufacturing Services and manufacturing companies have similar inputs but different processes and outputs Services tend to be labor intensive Service defects are not always easy to measure because service output is not usually a tangible item

23 Quality Attributes in Service
Benchmark “Best” level of quality achievement one company or companies seek to achieve Timeliness How quickly a service is provided “quickest, friendliest, most accurate service available.”

24 Cost of Quality Cost of Achieving Good Quality Cost of Poor Quality
Prevention costs Costs incurred during product design Appraisal costs Costs of measuring, testing, and analyzing Cost of Poor Quality Internal failure costs Include scrap, rework, process failure, downtime, and price reductions External failure costs Include complaints, returns, warranty claims, liability, and lost sales

25 Quality Management and Productivity
Ratio of output to input Yield: a measure of productivity Yield=(total input)(% good units) + (total input)(1-%good units)(% reworked) or Y=(I)(%G)+(I)(1-%G)(%R)

26 Product Cost Product Cost where:
Kd = direct manufacturing cost per unit I = input Kr = rework cost per unit R = reworked units Y = yield

27 Computing Product Yield for Multistage Processes
Y = (I)(%g1)(%g2) … (%gn) where: I = input of items to the production process that will result in finished products gi = good-quality, work-in-process products at stage i

28 Quality–Productivity Ratio
QPR Productivity index that includes productivity and quality costs QPR = (non-defective units) (input) (processing cost) + (defective units) (reworked cost)

29 Seven Quality Control Tools
Pareto Analysis Flow Chart Check Sheet Histogram Scatter Diagram SPC Chart Cause-and-Effect Diagram

30 Pareto Analysis NUMBER OF CAUSE DEFECTS PERCENTAGE Poor design 80 64 %
Wrong part dimensions 16 13 Defective parts 12 10 Incorrect machine calibration 7 6 Operator errors 4 3 Defective material 3 2 Surface abrasions 3 2 %

31 Percent from each cause
Causes of poor quality Machine calibrations Defective parts Wrong dimensions Poor Design Operator errors Defective materials Surface abrasions 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 (64) (13) (10) (6) (3) (2) Pareto Chart

32 Flow Chart Operation Decision Start/ Finish

TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 2002 REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob TV SET MODEL 1013 Integrated Circuits |||| Capacitors |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || Resistors || Transformers |||| Commands CRT |

34 Histogram 5 10 15 20

35 Scatter Diagram Y X

36 Control Chart Number of defects Sample number 18 12 6 3 9 15 21 24 2 4
10 14 16 Sample number Number of defects UCL = 23.35 LCL = 1.99 c = 12.67

37 Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Quality Problem Out of adjustment Tooling problems Old / worn Machines Faulty testing equipment Incorrect specifications Improper methods Measurement Poor supervision Lack of concentration Inadequate training Human Deficiencies in product design Ineffective quality management Poor process design Process Inaccurate temperature control Dust and Dirt Environment Defective from vendor Not to specifications Material- handling problems Materials

38 American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)
Measures customer satisfaction Established in 1994 Web site: Who do you think is top in ‘Breweries’? Automobiles?

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