Chapter 5 The Cardiovascular System. The Cardiovascular system Heart—pumps blood to lungs and systemic circulation Blood vessels—are the pipelines for.
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The Cardiovascular system Heart—pumps blood to lungs and systemic circulation Blood vessels—are the pipelines for carrying blood to and from the tissues For more information, visit Cardiovascular System at www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html
The heart serves as two pumps The right heart pumps blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated. The left heart pumps the oxygenated blood to the systemic circulation.
Anatomy of the heart Four chambers Right and left atria—receive blood from the veins Right and left ventricles--pump blood into the arteries Striated muscle Stimulated by nervous system, which triggers contractions Functions as syncytium Visit the American Heart Association at www.americanheart.org www.americanheart.org
Conducting system of the heart 1.Wave of excitation begins at the sinoatrial (SA) node 2.Travels by way of ephaptic conduction in the atria to the atrioventricular (AV) node 3.Then through the atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers, which conduct the impulses throughout the ventricular myocardium Visit The Heart.Org Cardiology Online at www.theheart.org/index.cfm www.theheart.org/index.cfm
The cardiac cycle The pattern of contraction and relaxation of the heart Diastole Systole Valves between atria and ventricles Allow unidirectional blood flow prevent backflow Atrial contraction Ventricular contraction
The cardiac cycle (cont.) End diastolic volume (EDV) –Amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole End systolic volume (ESV) –Amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of systole Stroke volume (SV) –The difference between EDV and ESV (the amount of blood ejected out of each ventricle with each cardiac contraction)
Cardiac output The amount of blood ejected by the heart each minute At rest, approximately 5 liters per minute In well-trained athlete, can increase to over 40 liters per minute Important limiting factor in athletic performance
Formula for determining cardiac output CO=HR x SV where HR is heart rate and SV is stroke volume.
Methods for measuring cardiac output Direct method Fick method Indicator dilution method
Control of heart rate and stroke volume heart rate is determined by the influence of the vagal and sympathetic nerves on the SA node stroke volume is determined largely by end diastolic volume which is related to ventricular contraction force as described by the Frank-Starling law of the heart during exercise both heart rate and cardiac contractility increase
Nine factors that affect heart rate 1.Age 2.Gender 3.Size 4.Posture 5.Ingestion of food 6.Smoking 7.Emotion 8.Body temperature 9.Heat and humidity Visit AACVPR—American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation at www.aacvpr.orgwww.aacvpr.org
Factors that affect stroke volume Gravity Muscular activity Size of the heart Nervous influences
Heart murmurs Faulty valves cause regurgitation of blood or restricted blood flow –Heart compensates for increase in retained blood by increasing its contraction force –As contraction force increases, more oxygen is consumed –Murmurs may be minor or may severely limit exercise
Heart rate is more important than stroke volume in aerobic exercise because 1.Stroke volume levels out at approximately eight times the resting level 2.Heart rate is proportional to the work load imposed 3.Heart rate is proportional to the oxygen consumed
The stages of typical heart rate response to exercise 1.At the beginning of exercise, the heart rate rises rapidly. 2.At the end of exercise, the heart rate rapidly declines within the first two or three minutes. 3.After the initial rapid decline, the rate decreases more slowly.
Heart rate changes in a moderately conditioned, middle- aged subject at work loads of 100 and 150 watts on a bicycle ergometer
Changes in cardiovascular function following endurance training
Differences in exercise that affect heart rate 1.Static vs. dynamic exercise 2.Intensity of the exercise 3.Duration of the exercise
How training affects the heart Decreases resting heart rate and heart rate during exercise Increases stroke volume Increases cardiac reserve capacity
Anatomy of blood vessels Aorta and large arteries Arterioles Resistance vessels Venules and veins
Hemodynamics: principles governing blood flow Pressure –Blood flows through the vessels because of a pressure gradient Flow –Larger and more metabolically active tissues require greater blood flow Resistance –viscocity –length of the vessel –vessel diameter Visit Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System at www.mercksharpdohme.com/disease/heart/coronary_health/anatomy/home.html www.mercksharpdohme.com/disease/heart/coronary_health/anatomy/home.html
Microcirculation Network in which arterioles give rise to metarterioles Metarterioles act as major thoroughfares through tissues Metarterioles join a collecting venule True capillaries arise from metarterioles AV shunts provide another route for blood flow
Distribution of blood to systemic tissues at rest and during heavy exercise
Blood distribution Changes in diameter of small arteries and arterioles are controlled by: –Nervous regulation –Chemical regulation
Blood pressure Driving force for moving blood through the circulatory system High blood pressure plays major role in such health issues as heart attacks, stroke, and kidney disease Blood pressure is affected by age, gender, emotional state, time of day, and body position Defined as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure
Range of systemic arterial blood pressure as a function of age
Effect of exercise on blood pressure Aerobic exercise--elevates systolic pressure but has little effect on diastolic pressure. Isometric exercise--intrathoracic pressure dramatically increases, decreasing venous return to the right atrium and putting a greater load on the heart.
The typical time course of the arterial blood pressure response to rest-exercise-recovery in a healthy young male.