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Chapter Six Demand

Properties of Demand Functions u Comparative statics analysis of ordinary demand functions -- the study of how ordinary demands x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) and x 2 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as prices p 1, p 2 and income y change.

Own-Price Changes u How does x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as p 1 changes, holding p 2 and y constant? u Suppose only p 1 increases, from p 1 ’ to p 1 ’’ and then to p 1 ’’’.

x1x1 x2x2 p 1 = p 1 ’ Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 x 1 + p 2 x 2 = y Own-Price Changes

x1x1 x2x2 p 1 = p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’ Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 x 1 + p 2 x 2 = y

Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p 1 = p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’’ Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 = p 1 ’ p 1 x 1 + p 2 x 2 = y

p 1 = p 1 ’ Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’) Own-Price Changes p 1 = p 1 ’ Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’) p1p1 p1’p1’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 = p 1 ’

x 1 *(p 1 ’) p1p1 p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1 Fixed p 2 and y.

x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1 p 1 price offer curve Fixed p 2 and y.

Own-Price Changes u The curve containing all the utility- maximizing bundles traced out as p 1 changes, with p 2 and y constant, is the p 1 - price offer curve. u The plot of the x 1 -coordinate of the p 1 - price offer curve against p 1 is the ordinary demand curve for commodity 1.

Own-Price Changes u What does a p 1 price-offer curve look like for a perfect-complements utility function?

Own-Price Changes u What does a p 1 price-offer curve look like for a perfect-complements utility function? Then the ordinary demand functions for commodities 1 and 2 are

Own-Price Changes

With p 2 and y fixed, higher p 1 causes smaller x 1 * and x 2 *.

Own-Price Changes With p 2 and y fixed, higher p 1 causes smaller x 1 * and x 2 *. As

Own-Price Changes With p 2 and y fixed, higher p 1 causes smaller x 1 * and x 2 *. As

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2

p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p1’p1’ ’ p 1 = p 1 ’ ’ ’ y/p 2

p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ ’’ y/p 2

p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’’ ’’’ y/p 2

p1p1 x1*x1* Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1 is Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ y/p 2

Own-Price Changes u What does a p 1 price-offer curve look like for a perfect-substitutes utility function? Then the ordinary demand functions for commodities 1 and 2 are

Own-Price Changes and

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 = p 1 ’ < p 2 ’

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’ < p 2 ’ ’

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ = p 2

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ = p 2

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ = p 2 ’’

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ = p 2 p 2 = p 1 ’’

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 ’’’ p 2 = p 1 ’’

Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 2 = p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ p 1 price offer curve Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1

Own-Price Changes u Usually we ask “Given the price for commodity 1 what is the quantity demanded of commodity 1?” u But we could also ask the inverse question “At what price for commodity 1 would a given quantity of commodity 1 be demanded?”

Own-Price Changes p1p1 x1*x1* p1’p1’ Given p 1 ’, what quantity is demanded of commodity 1?

Own-Price Changes p1p1 x1*x1* p1’p1’ Given p 1 ’, what quantity is demanded of commodity 1? Answer: x 1 ’ units. x1’x1’

Own-Price Changes p1p1 x1*x1* x1’x1’ Given p 1 ’, what quantity is demanded of commodity 1? Answer: x 1 ’ units. The inverse question is: Given x 1 ’ units are demanded, what is the price of commodity 1?

Own-Price Changes p1p1 x1*x1* p1’p1’ x1’x1’ Given p 1 ’, what quantity is demanded of commodity 1? Answer: x 1 ’ units. The inverse question is: Given x 1 ’ units are demanded, what is the price of commodity 1? Answer: p 1 ’

Own-Price Changes u Taking quantity demanded as given and then asking what must be price describes the inverse demand function of a commodity.

Own-Price Changes A Cobb-Douglas example: is the ordinary demand function and is the inverse demand function.

Own-Price Changes A perfect-complements example: is the ordinary demand function and is the inverse demand function.

Income Changes u How does the value of x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as y changes, holding both p 1 and p 2 constant?

Income Changes Fixed p 1 and p 2. y’ < y’’ < y’’’

Income Changes Fixed p 1 and p 2. y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’

Income Changes Fixed p 1 and p 2. y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ Income offer curve

Income Changes u A plot of quantity demanded against income is called an Engel curve.

Income Changes Fixed p 1 and p 2. y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ Income offer curve x1*x1* x2*x2* y y x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ y’ y’’ y’’’ y’ y’’ y’’’ Engel curve; good 2 Engel curve; good 1

Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences u An example of computing the equations of Engel curves; the Cobb- Douglas case. u The ordinary demand equations are

Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences Rearranged to isolate y, these are: Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences y y x1*x1* x2*x2* Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

Income Changes and Perfectly- Complementary Preferences u Another example of computing the equations of Engel curves; the perfectly-complementary case. u The ordinary demand equations are

Income Changes and Perfectly- Complementary Preferences Rearranged to isolate y, these are: Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

Fixed p 1 and p 2. Income Changes x1x1 x2x2

x1x1 x2x2 y’ < y’’ < y’’’ Fixed p 1 and p 2.

Income Changes x1x1 x2x2 y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ x 1 ’’’ Fixed p 1 and p 2.

Income Changes x1x1 x2x2 y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ x 1 ’’’ x1*x1* x2*x2* y y x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ y’ y’’ y’’’ y’ y’’ y’’’ Engel curve; good 2 Engel curve; good 1 x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ Fixed p 1 and p 2.

Income Changes x1*x1* x2*x2* y y x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ y’ y’’ y’’’ y’ y’’ y’’’ x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ Engel curve; good 2 Engel curve; good 1 Fixed p 1 and p 2.

Income Changes u In every example so far the Engel curves have all been straight lines? Q: Is this true in general? u A: No. Engel curves are straight lines if the consumer’s preferences are homothetic.

Homotheticity u A consumer’s preferences are homothetic if and only if for every k > 0. u That is, the consumer’s MRS is the same anywhere on a straight line drawn from the origin.  (x 1,x 2 ) (y 1,y 2 ) (kx 1,kx 2 ) (ky 1,ky 2 ) 

Income Effects u A good for which quantity demanded rises with income is called normal. u Therefore a normal good’s Engel curve is positively sloped.

Income Effects u A good for which quantity demanded falls as income increases is called income inferior. u Therefore an income inferior good’s Engel curve is negatively sloped.

Income Changes; Good 2 Is Normal, Good 1 Becomes Income Inferior x2x2 x1x1

x2x2 x1x1

x2x2 x1x1

x2x2 x1x1 Income offer curve

Income Changes; Good 2 Is Normal, Good 1 Becomes Income Inferior x2x2 x1x1 x1*x1* x2*x2* y y Engel curve for good 2 Engel curve for good 1

Ordinary Goods u A good is called ordinary if the quantity demanded of it always increases as its own price decreases.

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2 p 1 price offer curve

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2 p 1 price offer curve x1*x1* Downward-sloping demand curve Good 1 is ordinary  p1p1

Giffen Goods u If, for some values of its own price, the quantity demanded of a good rises as its own-price increases then the good is called Giffen.

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2 p 1 price offer curve

Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2 p 1 price offer curve x1*x1* Demand curve has a positively sloped part Good 1 is Giffen  p1p1

Cross-Price Effects u If an increase in p 2 –increases demand for commodity 1 then commodity 1 is a gross substitute for commodity 2. – reduces demand for commodity 1 then commodity 1 is a gross complement for commodity 2.

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