Presentation on theme: "Safety and Health in the Workplace"— Presentation transcript:
1 Safety and Health in the Workplace Chapter 18Safety and Healthin the Workplace
2 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the scope of the occupational safety and health problem in the United States and its importance to the community.Identify some of the pioneers in the prevention of occupational injuries and disease.Provide a short history of state and federal legislation on occupational safety and health.
3 Chapter ObjectivesExplain the difference between occupational injuries and occupational diseases and give several examples of each.Discuss the types of injuries that frequently occur in the workplace and describe their occurrence with regard to person, place, and time.Briefly describe broad strategies for preventing injuries in the workplace.
4 Chapter ObjectivesIdentify the different types of occupational illnesses and disorders and list some of the causative agents.Outline some general strategies for controlling these diseases.List several occupational safety and health professions and describe what the professionals in each of these do.List and briefly describe several occupational safety and health programs for the workplace.
5 Introduction 2.6 billion workers 250 million occupational injuries 330,000 fatalities1.1 million worker deaths each year from work-related illnesses160 million new cases of diseases resulting from the worker’s environment
6 Definitions Occupational disease Occupational injury An abnormal condition, other than an occupational injury, caused by an exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.Occupational injuryAn injury that results from exposure to a single incident in the work environment.
7 Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and Deaths Scope of the problemEstimated cost of $146.6 billion annually.$74 billion in lost wages and productivity.$27.7 billion in medical costs.$26.3 billion in administrative costs.15 die each day from work-related injuries.Impact is beyond the workplace.
8 History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems 1561: De Re MetallicaIndustrial RevolutionState legislationWorkers’ compensation lawsFederal legislationOccupational Safety and Health Act of 1970National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
9 Highlights of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Legislation Year Legislation1908 Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act (limited coverage)1916 Federal Highway Aid Act1926 Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act (included workers)1927 Federal Longshoremen’s & Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act1936 Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act1952 Coal Mine Safety Act1959 Radiation Standards Act1960 Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act1966 National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety ActChild Protection Act (banned hazardous household substances)1967 National Commission on Product Safety created1968 Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act1969 Construction Safety ActCoal Mine Health & Safety Act1970 Occupational Safety & Health Act
10 Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Disease, and Deaths Recent trendsSince 1992, the numbers of injuries and illnesses have declined.Goods-producing sector has the highest incidence.Workplace injury and illness rates cycle up and down.
11 Unintentional Injuries Fatal work-related injuries15 fatal work-related injuries per day.Nonfatal work-related injuries3.5 million occupational injuries and illnesses were treated in emergency rooms in 2001.CharacteristicsAgeInjuries lowest for 16- to 19-year age group.Death rates highest for 65+-year age group.GenderMales at a higher risk of injury.Poverty and race
13 Unintentional Injuries Geographic differencesAlaska and Wyoming are the states with the highest rates.Temporal variations81% decline in deaths from injuries between 1912 and 2002.
14 Workplace Injuries by Industry and Occupation Fatal injuries by industryMiningAgricultureConstructionTransportationNonfatal occupational injuriesGoods-producing sectorService-producing sector
15 Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace Reduction of injuries by:Eliminating or modifying the jobChanging the work environmentMaking machinery saferImproving the selection, training, and education of workers
16 Workplace Violence Categories Risk factors Criminal intent Customer/clientWorker-on-workerPersonal relationshipRisk factorsLocationTimeType of work
18 Occupational Illnesses and Disorders Musculoskeletal conditionsRepeated traumaSkin disease and disordersAllergic and irritant dermatitisNoise-induced hearing lossRespiratory disordersChronic natureDifficult to recognizeOther work-related diseases and disordersPoisoning and infectionsAnxiety, stress, or neurotic disorders
19 Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Disorders Agent-host-environment modelIdentification and evaluation of agentsProceduresEngineering controlsProtective devicesSurveillanceHostAgentEnvironment
20 Resources for Prevention Safety and health professionalsSafety engineers and certified safety professionalsHealth physicistsIndustrial hygienistsOccupational physiciansOccupational health nurse
21 Resources for Prevention Occupational Safety and Health ProgramsPreplacement examinationsDisease prevention programsSafety programsHealth promotion programsEmployee assistance programs