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1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span

2 2 What Are the Issues ? zIndividuals develop socially. How do social relationships develop? zWhat factors drive social development? ybiological ycultural ycognitive

3 3 Erikson’s Theory zBiological in belief that there are innate drives to develop social relationships and that these promote survival (Darwinism) zDivided life span into eight psychosocial stages, each associated with a different drive and a problem or crisis to resolve zOutcome of each stage varies along a continuum from positive to negative

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6 6 Infant Attachment zIntense emotional bond between infant and caregiver

7 7 Harlow’s Study of Attachment zInfant rhesus monkeys placed with two surrogate mothers, one wire, one covered with soft cloth zMilk-producing nipple attached to either wire or cloth mother

8 8 zAttachment was based on “contact comfort” rather than feeding

9 9 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation zMother-child observed in playroom z4 conditions: yinitial mother-child interaction ymother leaves infant alone in playroom yfriendly stranger enters playroom ymother returns and greets child

10 10 Forms of Attachment zSecurely attached - explores the room when mother present, becomes upset and explores less when mother not present, shows pleasure when mother returns zAvoidantly attached - form of insecure attachment; child avoids mother and act coldly to her

11 11 Forms of Attachment zAnxious resistant attachment - insecure attachment; child remains close to mother and remains distressed despite her attempts to comfort

12 12 PositiveNegative Secure Insecure Recognition score Memory and attachment history (Belsky et al., 1996)

13 13 Gender Differences zBiological basis: difference in prenatal hormone exposure zCultural basis: difference in interactions with caregivers

14 14 Hoffman’s Categories of Discipline zPower assertion - use of rewards and real or threatened punishments to control children’s behavior zLove withdrawal - expressing disapproval of child rather than action zInduction - verbal reasoning in which parent induces child to think about harmful consequences of actions

15 15 Baumrind’s Parenting Styles zAuthoritarian - value obedience and use a high degree of power assertion zAuthoritative - less concerned with obedience, greater use of induction zPermissive - most tolerant, least likely to use discipline zNeglectful - completely uninvolved

16 16 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development zAssessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people’s answers zProposed five stages, each taking into account a broader portion of the social world

17 17 Levels of Moral Reasoning zPreconventional - moral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments zConventional - laws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules zPostconventional - reasoning based on personal moral standards

18 18 Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation zA focus on direct consequences zNegative actions will result in punishments zPositive actions will result in rewards

19 19 Stage 2: Self-Interested Exchanges zReflects the understanding that different people have different self- interests, which sometimes come in conflict zGetting what one wants often requires giving something up in return

20 20 Stage 3: Interpersonal Accord and Conformity zAn attempt to live up to the expectations of important others zPositive actions will improve relations with significant others zNegative actions will harm those relationships

21 21 Stage 4: Law-and-Order Morality zTo maintain social order, people must resist personal pressures and follow the laws of the larger society

22 22 Stage 5: Human-Rights and Social-Welfare Morality zA balance is struck between respect for laws and ethical principles that transcend specific laws zLaws that fail to promote general welfare or that violate ethical principles can be changed, reinterpreted, or abandoned

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