2 Why do we study psychology? Uninformed insights are often erroneousHindsight biasOverconfidenceScience of psychology provides informed conclusions based on carefully examined data
3 Thinking like a scientist Begins with a scientific attitudeCuriositySkepticismHumility
4 Thinking like a scientist Requires critical thinkingApplying skepticism to all information, arguments and conclusionsExamination ofAssumptionsValuesEvidenceConclusions
5 Thinking like a scientist Productive critical thinking remains open to new ideas and perspectivesAvoids cynicismTolerates uncertaintyLooks for the questions that remain to be answered
6 Scientific method Observe behaviors Form a hypothesis Evaluate and refine theoryTesthypothesisAnalyze andreport results
7 Scientific methodTheories are formed, based on observations of behaviorTheories can be used to understand and predict behaviorMust be testable!
8 Scientific theories? Shy people are more likely to succeed in school. Drinking glarfnog will cause intoxication.Autism is caused by vaccinations.Neanderthals were primarily bisexual.Most humans prefer dogs to cats.Schizophrenia is more common in men than in women.
9 Scientific method Hypothesis is required to test a theory Testable predictionOnce tested, a theory can be accepted, rejected, or *most often* revised
10 Scientific methodHypothesis is tested through one of many research methodsDescriptiveCorrelationExperimental
11 Scientific method After testing, the results are analyzed and reported Analyzed with statisticsWhy report findings?
12 Scientific methodAfter analyzing the results, the original theory is reevaluated and refinedNew questions askedNew hypotheses tested
13 Research methodsDescriptive research - describes behavior, does not explain itCase studyNo conclusions!SurveyWording effectsSampling errorsObservationNaturalisticLaboratory
14 Research methodsCorrelation research - examines the relationship between variablesPositive correlationNegative correlationNo correlationDoes not determine causation!
15 Research methodsExperimental research - determines causation - how one variable affects anotherIndependent variableDependent variableExperiments compare randomly assigned groupsExperimental groupsControl groupsPlacebos
16 Ethical issues in psychological research Right to privacyInformed consentUse of deceptionRight to withdrawAnimal useAnimals are used in studies that cannot be done on humans for ethical or practical reasonsALL animal research is carefully monitored by federal and institutional animal care committees
17 Critical thinking Psychology versus pseudopsychology Psychology - based on evidence gathered through scientific researchPseudopsychology - “Pop psychology” - focused on satisfying wantsOffers simplistic explanations/solutionsNot based on credible scientific evidenceOften associated with advertising or consumer manipulation
18 Critical thinkingLearning to evaluate reports and differentiate between psychology and pseudopsychology is an important skill
19 Guidelines for critical thinking Define termsExamine the evidenceAnalyze assumptions and biasesAvoid emotional reasoningDo not oversimplifyConsider other interpretationsTolerate uncertainty
20 Mobile phones 'more dangerous than smoking' Mobile phones could kill far more people than smoking or asbestos, a study by an award-winning cancer expert has concluded. He says people should avoid using them wherever possible and that governments and the mobile phone industry must take "immediate steps" to reduce exposure to their radiation.The study, by Dr Vini Khurana, is the most devastating indictment yet published of the health risks. It draws on growing evidence that using handsets for 10 years or more can double the risk of brain cancer.Earlier this year, the French government warned against the use of mobile phones, especially by children. Germany also advises its people to minimize handset use, and the European Environment Agency has called for exposures to be reduced.Professor Khurana admits that mobiles can save lives in emergencies, but concludes that "there is a significant and increasing body of evidence for a link between mobile phone usage and certain brain tumours". He believes this will be "definitively proven" in the next decade.He fears that "unless the industry and governments take immediate and decisive steps", the incidence of malignant brain tumors and associated death rate will be observed to rise globally within a decade from now, by which time it may be far too late to intervene medically."It is anticipated that this danger has far broader public health ramifications than asbestos and smoking," says Professor Khurana, Exerpt from: Independent.co.uk
21 Practicing critical thinking Identify the article title, author and source.What claim about human behavior or health is being made?What qualifications does the expert have? What claims is he/she making?What research is provided to support the claims being made?Is the title of the article supported?Does this article violate any of the 7 guidelines for critical thinking?What more would you like to know, based on this article?