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Figure 1.1 The observer in the truck sees the ball move in a vertical path when thrown upward. (b) The Earth observer views the path of the ball as a parabola. Fig. 1-1, p. 4

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**The observer in the truck sees the ball move in a vertical path when thrown upward.**

Fig. 1-1a, p. 4

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**(b) The Earth observer views the path of the ball as a parabola.**

Fig. 1-1b, p. 4

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**Figure 1. 2 An event occurs at a point P**

Figure 1.2 An event occurs at a point P. The event is observed by two observers in inertial frames S and S’, in which S’ moves with a velocity v relative to S. Fig. 1-2, p. 4

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Figure 1.3 If the velocity of the ether wind relative to the Earth is v, and c is the velocity of light relative to the ether, the speed of light relative to the Earth is (a) c + v in the downwind direction, (b) c - v in the upwind direction, and (c) (c 2 - v2)1/2 in the direction perpendicular to the wind. Fig. 1-3, p. 7

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**(a) c + v in the downwind direction**

Fig. 1-3a, p. 7

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**(b) c - v in the upwind direction**

Fig. 1-3b, p. 7

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**(c) (c 2 - v2)1/2 in the direction perpendicular to the wind.**

Fig. 1-3c, p. 7

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**Figure 1. 4 Diagram of the Michelson interferometer**

Figure 1.4 Diagram of the Michelson interferometer. According to the ether wind concept, the speed of light should be c - v as the beam approaches mirror M2 and c + v after reflection. Fig. 1-4, p. 8

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**Figure 1. 5 Abert A. Michelson (1852-1931)**

Figure 1.5 Abert A. Michelson ( ). A German physicist, Michelson invented the inferometer and spent much of his life making accurate measurements of the speed of light. He was the first American to be awarded the Nobel prize (1907), which he received for his work in optics. Fig. 1-5, p. 9

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Figure 1.6 Interference fringe schematic showing (a) fringes before rotation and (b) expected fringe shift after a rotation of the interferometer by 90º. Fig. 1-6, p. 9

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**Figure 1.7 Albert Einstein playing his beloved fiddle, 1941.**

Fig. 1-7, p. 11

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Figure 1.8 In relativity, we use a reference frame consisting of a coordinate grid and a set of synchronized clocks. Fig. 1-8, p. 13

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**Figure 1. 9 Two lightning bolts strike the ends of a moving boxcar**

Figure 1.9 Two lightning bolts strike the ends of a moving boxcar. (a) The events appear to be simultaneous to the stationary observer at O, who is midway between A and B. (b) The events do not appear to be simultaneous to the observer at O’, who claims that the front of the train is struck before the rear. Fig. 1-9, p. 14

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(a) The events appear to be simultaneous to the stationary observer at O, who is midway between A and B. Fig. 1-9a, p. 14

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(b) The events do not appear to be simultaneous to the observer at O’, who claims that the front of the train is struck before the rear. Fig. 1-9a, p. 14

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Figure 1.10 (a) A mirror is fixed to a moving vehicle, and a light pulse leaves O’ at rest in the vehicle. (b) Relative to a stationary observer on Earth, the mirror and O’ move with a speed v. Note that the distance the pulse travels measured by the stationary observer on Earth is greater than 2d. (c) The right triangle for calculating the relationship between t and t’. Fig. 1-10, p. 15

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**(a) A mirror is fixed to a moving vehicle, and a light pulse leaves O’ at rest in the vehicle.**

Fig. 1-10a, p. 15

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(b) Relative to a stationary observer on Earth, the mirror and O’ move with a speed v. Note that the distance the pulse travels measured by the stationary observer on Earth is greater than 2d. Fig. 1-10b, p. 15

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**(c) The right triangle for calculating the relationship between t and t’.**

Fig. 1-10c, p. 15

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**Figure 1. 11 (a) Muons traveling with a speed of 0**

Figure 1.11 (a) Muons traveling with a speed of 0.99c travel only about 650 m as measured in the muons’ reference frame, where their lifetime is about 2.2 s. (b) The muons travel about 4700 m as measured by an observer on Earth. Because of time dilation, the muons’ lifetime is longer as measured by the Earth observer. Fig. 1-11, p. 17

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**(a) Muons traveling with a speed of 0**

(a) Muons traveling with a speed of 0.99c travel only about 650 m as measured in the muons’ reference frame, where their lifetime is about 2.2 s. Fig. 1-11a, p. 17

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**(b) The muons travel about 4700 m as measured by an observer on Earth**

(b) The muons travel about 4700 m as measured by an observer on Earth. Because of time dilation, the muons’ lifetime is longer as measured by the Earth observer. Fig. 1-11b, p. 17

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**Figure 1. 12 Decay curves for muons traveling at a speed of 0**

Figure 1.12 Decay curves for muons traveling at a speed of c and for muons at rest. Fig. 1-12, p. 17

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**Figure 1. 13 A stick moves to the right with a speed v**

Figure 1.13 A stick moves to the right with a speed v. (a) The stick as viewed in a frame attached to it. (b) The stick as seen by an observer who sees it move past her at v. Any inertial observer finds that the length of a meter stick moving past her with speed v is less than the length of a stationary stick by a factor of (1 - v2/c2)1/2. Fig. 1-13, p. 19

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**(a) The stick as viewed in a frame attached to it.**

Fig. 1-13a, p. 19

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**(b) The stick as seen by an observer who sees it move past her at v**

(b) The stick as seen by an observer who sees it move past her at v. Any inertial observer finds that the length of a meter stick moving past her with speed v is less than the length of a stationary stick by a factor of (1 - v2/c2)1/2. Fig. 1-13b, p. 19

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Figure 1.14 Computer-simulated photographs of a box (a) at rest relative to the camera and (b) moving at a speed v = 0.8c relative to the camera. Fig. 1-14, p. 20

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**Computer-simulated photographs of a box (a) at rest relative to the camera.**

Fig. 1-14a, p. 20

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**Computer-simulated photographs of a box (b) moving at a speed v = 0**

Computer-simulated photographs of a box (b) moving at a speed v = 0.8c relative to the camera. Fig. 1-14b, p. 20

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Figure 1.15 (Example 1.5) (a) When the spaceship is at rest, its shape is as shown. (b) The spaceship appears to look like this when it moves to the right with a speed v. Note that only its x dimension is contracted in this case. The 25-m vertical height is unchanged because it is perpendicular to the direction of relative motion between the observer and the spaceship. Figure 1.15b represents the shape of the spaceship as seen by the observer who sees the ship in motion. Fig. 1-15, p. 21

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**(a) When the spaceship is at rest, its shape is as shown.**

Fig. 1-15a, p. 21

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(b) The spaceship appears to look like this when it moves to the right with a speed v. Note that only its x dimension is contracted in this case. Fig. 1-15b, p. 21

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Figure 1.16 “I love hearing that lonesome wail of the train whistle as the frequency of the wave changes due to the Doppler effect.” Fig. 1-16, p. 22

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Figure 1.17 (a) A light source fixed in S emits wave crests separated in space by and moving outward at speed c as seen from S. (b) What wavelength ’ is measured by an observer at rest in S’? S’ is a frame approaching S at speed v such that the x- and x’-axes coincide. Fig. 1-17, p. 23

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(a) A light source fixed in S emits wave crests separated in space by and moving outward at speed c as seen from S. Fig. 1-17a, p. 23

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**(b) What wavelength ’ is measured by an observer at rest in S’**

(b) What wavelength ’ is measured by an observer at rest in S’? S’ is a frame approaching S at speed v such that the x- and x’-axes coincide. Fig. 1-17b, p. 23

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Figure 1.18 The view from S’. 1, 2, and 3 (in black) show three successive positions of O separated in time by T’, the period of the light as measured from S’. Fig. 1-18, p. 24

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Figure 1.19 (Example 1.8) Two spaceships A and B move in opposite directions. The velocity of B relative to A is less than c and is obtained by using the relativistic velocity transformation. Fig. 1-19, p. 30

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Figure 1.20 (Example 1.9) A motorcyclist moves past a stationary observer with a speed of 0.800c and throws a ball in the direction of motion with a speed of 0.700c relative to himself. Fig. 1-20, p. 30

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Figure 1.21 (Example 1.10) Two motorcycle pack leaders, Alpha and Beta, blaze past a stationary police officer. They are leading their respective gangs from the pool hall along perpendicular roads. Fig. 1-21, p. 31

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**Figure 1.22 (Example 1.10) Pack leader Alpha’s view of things.**

Fig. 1-22, p. 31

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Figure 1.23 A spacetime diagram showing the position of a particle in one dimension at consecutive times. The path showing the complete history of the particle is called the world line of the particle. An event E has coordinates (x, t) in frame S and coordinates (x’, t ‘) in S’. Fig. 1-23, p. 32

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**Figure 1.24 Two events, E1 and E2, with coordinates (x1,t1) and (x2,t 2) in frame S.**

Fig. 1-24, p. 33

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Figure 1.25 Classification of one-dimensional spacetime into past, future, and elsewhere regions. A particle with world line passing through O cannot reach regions marked elsewhere. Fig. 1-25, p. 34

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**Figure 1. 26 Three pairs of events in spacetime: V,W; A,B; C,D**

Figure 1.26 Three pairs of events in spacetime: V,W; A,B; C,D. V could cause W. A could cause B. C could not cause D. Fig. 1-26, p. 34

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Fig. P1-18, p. 38

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Fig. P1-30, p. 39

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Fig. P1-34, p. 40

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Fig. P1-39, p. 40

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