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Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Managing the Distributed File System, Disk Quotas, and Software Installation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Managing the Distributed File System, Disk Quotas, and Software Installation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Managing the Distributed File System, Disk Quotas, and Software Installation

2 Chapter 10 Learning Objectives n Design, configure, and manage the Distributed File System on a network n Publish a shared folder and a Distributed File System shared folder in the Active Directory n Enable and configure disk quotas

3 Chapter 10 Learning Objectives (continued) n Install and manage application software n Edit and configure the Windows 2000 Server Registry n Set up and use the Microsoft License Manager

4 Chapter 10 Distributed File System n Distributed File System (Dfs): A system that enables folders shared from multiple computers to appear as though they exist in one centralized hierarchy of folders instead of on many different computers

5 Chapter 10 Advantages of DFS n Shared folders can be set up so that they appear in one hierarchy of folders n NTFS access permissions can be used n Dfs offers fault tolerance alternatives n Dfs enables load balancing for better server performance n Web-based access is improved n Vital shared folders on multiple computers can be backed up from one set of master folders

6 Chapter 10 Planning Tip n Implement Dfs on an NTFS volume to take advantage of access permissions, special permissions, and auditing

7 Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Tip n If you are running in mixed mode and Dfs does not work on the Windows NT Server 4.0 servers, install the latest service pack for Windows NT Server 4.0 (Dfs is implemented in service pack 3)

8 Chapter 10 Dfs Models n There are two Dfs models: u Standalone: does not take advantage of the Active Directory and provides a flat level share (no hierarchies under the root) u Domain-based: uses the Active Directory and offers a deep hierarchical folder arrangement

9 Chapter 10 Domain-Based Topology n Dfs root: The main Active Directory container that holds Dfs links to shared folders in a domain n Dfs link: A path that is established between a shared folder in a domain and a Dfs root n Replica set: A grouping of shared folders in a Dfs root that are replicated or copied to all servers that participate in Dfs replication

10 Chapter 10 Dfs Links in a Dfs Root Figure 10-1 Dfs links in the Dfs root container

11 Chapter 10 Planning a Dfs Implementation n Determine whether to use a standalone or domain-based model n Place Dfs shared folders on NTFS formatted disks, if possible n Use multiple Dfs roots to reflect particular arrangements of information and security needs n Save MMC changes when managing Dfs

12 Chapter 10 Planning a Dfs Implementation(continued) n Set up a short cache timeout on folders in which the contents change often n Determine the impact of Dfs on network traffic n Create the first Dfs root and associated links before creating additional roots n Develop a synchronization schedule that helps minimize network traffic n Regularly review and purge Dfs folders that are no longer needed

13 Chapter 10 Configuring Dfs n Configure Dfs using the Distributed file System management tool n Start the tool by: u Accessing it from the Administrative Tools menu u Or access it as an MMC snap-in

14 Chapter 10 Configuring the Standalone Dfs Model Figure 10-2 Specifying the standalone model

15 Chapter 10 Creating a Dfs Root Share Figure 10-3 Creating a new Dfs share

16 Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Tip n If you attempt to create a standalone root on a server, and see the error message, “This server already hosts a Dfs root,” this means that you cannot create an additional Dfs root on that server because one already exists, and a host server can have only one

17 Chapter 10 Using the MMC to Access a New Root Figure 10-4 Viewing a new Dfs shared folder in the MMC console

18 Chapter 10 Configuring the Domain-Based Dfs Model n Create a domain-based Dfs root using the Distributed file system management tool

19 Chapter 10 Associating the Domain with Dfs Figure 10-5 Entering the domain name

20 Chapter 10 Tasks in Managing a Domain- Based Dfs Root System n Deleting a Dfs root n Adding and removing a Dfs link n Adding root and link replica sets n Configuring security n Checking the status of a root or link

21 Chapter 10 Deleting a Dfs Root n The steps to delete a Dfs root are: u Warn users in advance u Open the Distributed File System management tool u Right-click the root in the tree u Click Delete Dfs Root u Click Yes

22 Chapter 10 Adding a Dfs Link n The steps to add a Dfs link are: u Open the Distributed File System management tool u Right-click the root u Click New Dfs Link u Enter the name for the link u Set the cache timeout u Click Ok

23 Chapter 10 Setting Up a Link Figure 10-6 Creating a Dfs link

24 Chapter 10 Root Replicas n Create a root replica to provide a backup of the master root system and to balance the load when access to the master root becomes heavy n Load balancing via root replicas improves network performance and user productivity, because users don’t have to wait for the resources that they need

25 Chapter 10 Replicating Links n Designated links can be replicated as well as roots for fault tolerance and load balancing

26 Chapter 10 Configuring a Link n To configure a link using the Distributed File System management tool: u Right-click the Dfs link to replicate and click New u Enter the computer name and shared folder on the computer to house the replica u Select the replication method, Manual or Automatic, and click OK u For automatic replication, set the the replication policy and click OK

27 Chapter 10 Configuring the Type of Replication Figure 10-7 Adding a new replica for a Dfs link

28 Chapter 10 Configuring the Replication Policy Figure 10-8 Configuring replication policy

29 Chapter 10 Configuring the File Replication Service n Make sure that the File Replication Service is started and configured to start automatically u Use the Computer Management tool or the Services tool on the Administrative Tools menu to configure services

30 Chapter 10 Dfs Root Permissions n Full Control: Can change permissions, take ownership, create, delete, modify and manage Dfs shared files and folders – plus delete trees and subtrees in the folder structure n Read: Can list and read the contents of shared files and folders n Write: Can modify the contents of shared files and folders

31 Chapter 10 Troubleshooting a Problem with a Root or Link n The most common problem is that a root, link, or replica is not accessible, such as when the computer on which it resides is down n Use the Check Status option to locate a problem and look for a red circle with a white “x” that indicates a particular computer is down

32 Chapter 10 Checking the Status of Dfs Figure 10-9 Checking the status of replicas in a link

33 Chapter 10 Publishing a Shared Folder n When the Active Directory is implemented, plan to publish regular shared folders and Dfs root folders

34 Chapter 10 Steps for Publishing a Folder n To publish a folder: u Open the Active Directory Users and Computers tool u Right-click the domain u Point to New and click Shared Folder u Enter the name for the published folder u Enter the path to the shared folder or Dfs root and click OK

35 Chapter 10 Publishing a Folder Figure 10-10 Publishing a shared folder

36 Chapter 10 Disk Quotas n Use the Windows 2000 disk quota capability to: u Prevent users from filling the disk capacity u Encourage users to play their part in managing disk space by cleaning up old or unused files u Track disk capacity needs for future planning u Provide server administrators information about when users are nearing or have reached their disk quotas

37 Chapter 10 Planning Tip n If possible, establish quotas before making shared folders available to users, because it is politically harder to impose the limits after users are accustomed to having none

38 Chapter 10 Disk Quota Parameters n Enable quota management: Sets up quota management and starts tracking disk usage n Deny disk space to users exceeding quota limits: Users can’t write new information after reaching their quotas n Do not limit disk usage: Tracks disk usage without imposing quotas n Limit disk space to: Sets the default amount of disk space for all users

39 Chapter 10 Disk Quota Parameters (continued) n Set warning level to: Sets the default disk space that users can occupy that will trigger a warning message n Log event when a user exceeds their quota limit: An event is entered in the System log when a user reaches his or her quota n Log event when the user exceeds the warning level: An event is entered in the System log when a user receives a warning that he or she is approaching the quota

40 Chapter 10 Configuring a Default Disk Quota Figure 10-11 Setting default disk quotas

41 Chapter 10 Disk Quotas for Specific Users n Besides setting default disk quotas for all users, you can set individual quotas for certain users

42 Chapter 10 Setting a Quota for a User Figure 10-12 Setting a disk quota on a designated user account

43 Chapter 10 Managing Disk Quotas n Managing disk quotas: u Modify the default or specific user quotas as needed u Delete quotas that are no longer needed u Import disk quota statistics into a spreadsheet, database, or word-processed file as needed to track them over time

44 Chapter 10 Deleting a Disk Quota Figure 10-13 Deleting a disk quota on an account

45 Chapter 10 Issues to Consider Before Installing Application Software n Software licensing n Network compatibility n Temporary files n Network performance n Software testing n Loading software from the network

46 Chapter 10 Installing Software n Use the Add/Remove Programs tool to install or remove application software

47 Chapter 10 Using the Add/Remove Programs Tool Figure 10-14 Installing application software

48 Chapter 10 Using the Add/Remove Programs Tool (continued) Figure 10-15 Providing the path to the setup program

49 Chapter 10 Running Software Applications n Software applications run in the user mode u User mode: A special operating mode in Windows 2000 used for running programs in a memory area kept separate from that used by the kernel and in which the program cannot directly access the kernel or operating system services except through an API

50 Chapter 10 Application Programming Interface n Application Programming Interface (API): Functions or programming features in Windows 2000 Server that programmers can use for network links, links to messaging services, or interfaces to other systems

51 Chapter 10 Windows 2000 Server Registry n Sample elements in the Registry u Information about all hardware components u Information about Windows 2000 services u Data about user profiles and group policies u Data on the last current and last known setup used to boot the computer u Configuration information for all software u Software licensing information u Control Panel parameter configurations

52 Chapter 10 Elements of the Registry n Key: A category of information contained in the Windows 2000 Registry, such as hardware or software n Subkey: A key within a Registry key, similar to a subfolder under a folder n Value: A data parameter in the Registry stored as a value in decimal, binary, or text format

53 Chapter 10 Root Key Defined n Root key: Also called a subtree, the highest category of data contained in the Registry. There are five root keys.

54 Chapter 10 Windows 2000 Server Root Keys n HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE: Contains in particular information about hardware components and drivers, software installed, system information, and security n HKEY_CURRENT_USER: Contains information about the user profile for the account currently logged onto the console

55 Chapter 10 Windows 2000 Server Root Keys (continued) n HKEY_USERS: Contains all of the user profiles n HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT: Contains data to associate file extensions with programs n HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG: Contains information about the current hardware profile

56 Chapter 10 Example Contents of a Root Key Figure 10-16 The HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE root key

57 Chapter 10 Editing the Registry n Edit the Registry using one of two editors: u Regedt32: a more modern 32-bit editor u Regedit: an older editor preferred by some administrators

58 Chapter 10 Editing the HKEY_CURRENT_USER key Figure 10-17 Changing Registry data for file associations

59 Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Tip n Only make changes to the Registry when you are absolutely certain about what you are doing, or you may end up with a system the will not boot

60 Chapter 10 License Manager n Use the License Manager to configure server licenses, add more licenses, manage Microsoft Backoffice software licenses, and track license usage

61 Chapter 10 Configuring Licenses with License Manager Figure 10-18 Adding new licenses

62 Chapter 10 Chapter Summary n The Distributed File System (Dfs) is designed to make it easier for users to access multiple shared folders on multiple servers n Dfs can be implemented using the standalone or domain-based model n Dfs not only can make users more productive, but it offers fault tolerance and load balancing

63 Chapter 10 Chapter Summary n Disk quotas make it possible to: u Obtain statistics for disk capacity planning u Place limits on the amount of disk space that all users or individual users occupy n Use the Add/Remove Programs tool to install, upgrade, and remove application software

64 Chapter 10 Chapter Summary n The Windows 2000 Server Registry houses vital system, hardware, software, user, and security information n Plan to use the Microsoft License Manager to track current licenses, install new licenses, and determine when more licenses are needed

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