Le Chef Maurice “le chef” Duplessis –Leader of Union National –Premier of Quebec from 1933-59 –Died of a stroke while in office Negatives –Legacy of bribes and kick backs –Quebec economy and society stagnates as Duplessis attempts to preserve their traditions and way of life in a sea of English speaking people Positives –fleur de lis –“cooperation always, assimilation never”
The Quiet Revolution Impatient Generation - Young Quebecers who demanded change - represented by liberals and Jean Lesage 1960 election –Liberals campaign on slogan “things must change” –Liberals win a majority
Quiet Revolution in Power New Philosophy – “Maitre chez nous” (masters in our own house) –Goals was to: Modernize Quebec Ensure survival of French Language and Culture Full equality in Canada Place Quebec economy in hands of Quebecers Rene Levesque is a dynamic member of the Liberal cabinet
Quiet Revolution cont… Lesage is in power from 1960-66 and changes: –Decreases political and social influences of the church –Modernize education (schools and Universities) and make it more accessible –Medical services brought under government control –More protection for workers and unions –Equality for men and women –Voting age reduced from 21 to 18 –Provincial Pension plan created –Hydro Quebec expanded and rates and services standardized –Arts Flourished Quebec government opens offices in Paris, London, and Washington Quebec attempts to sign education and cultural agreements with France- Canadian government does not allow.
3 ways to change Federalist: more influence in federal government seen as the best way to move forward –Anglophones only real option Nationalist: Quebec independence/ separatists –Lead by Rene Levesque Militants: violent revolution seen as the way to Quebec independence –Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ)
Challenges to French-English Relations The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Federalism FLQ/October Crisis President Charles de Gaulle comes to Canada Languages Act Constitutional debate/ patriation Meech Lake Accord Founding of The Bloc and Parti Quebecois 1980 and 1995 referendum