HS 325 Cognitive Learning: Developing the Thinking Child Wed, Nov. 1: Meet in the gym dressed for activity (no jeans) Article Summary due on Wed. Nov.
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HS 325 Cognitive Learning: Developing the Thinking Child Wed, Nov. 1: Meet in the gym dressed for activity (no jeans) Article Summary due on Wed. Nov. 1 Guidelines and rubric are posted on course website
chapter 13 Knowledge As a Functional Constraint in Motor Development
Knowledge Bases Reasons performance is related to size of the knowledge base: –Less need to remember a great deal of information –More effective use of cognitive processes –Less demand on conscious attention to some tasks Performance facilitated by practice of physical skills and by increased knowledge
Types of Knowledge Declarative - Develops First –Factual information –Specific to a topic Procedural – Develops Second –How-to information –Specific to a topic Strategic- Develops Last –General rules and strategies –Can be generalized across activities
Novice–Expert Differences Compared with novices, experts have more declarative and procedural knowledge, organize their information in a methodical structure, make more inferences, analyze problems at a more advanced level, recognize patterns more quickly, preplan some responses to specific situations, organize knowledge relative to the goal of the game, and spend much time learning about the topic.
Gender Differences Gender differences in sport performance might result partially from differences in knowledge about a sport. Boys’ sport knowledge development is fostered.
Speed of Cognitive Function Many activities require quick and accurate responses. Researchers generally work from an information processing perspective. Children and older adults take longer to process cognitive information than young adults do.
Key Terms: Cognitive Map-Making Mental images retained in memory ready to be re-called and re-created on split-second notice. Critical Thinking (in the motor domain) Reflective thinking used to make reasonable and defensible decisions about movement tasks and challenges ► Higher thought processes are required for movement learning to occur. ► The more complex the task, the more complicated the cognitive processing.
Assessment of Knowledge Written knowledge tests Teacher Observation Self-Assessment Check for Understanding
Knowledge As a Functional Constraint: Summary Performance can be limited by limited knowledge. Performance can be enhanced by expert knowledge. Knowledge can be acquired at any age. It takes time and experience to acquire knowledge.
Inside the TEEN Brain What do you already know about the teen brain? Brainstorm with a partner and come with a list
Inside the Teen Brain What a teen does matters! The cells connected and used will survive and flourish “Use it or lose it!” Rapid brain growth during adolescence The teen brain is changing! Gray matter (thinking part of brain) thickens throughout childhood. Immature frontal cortex Strategies, Organizing, Consequences: still not fully developed Brain is most vulnerable to drug use/abuse
Teens say: ‘They need to remember what it’s like to be a kid.’ “Let us make our own mistakes!” “You don’t have to abide by your own rules.”
Implications for Physical Educators and Coaches??