Joints A joint is the site of meeting of two or more bones. Joints are classified into three types (depending on the material that hold the articular bones.
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2 JointsA joint is the site of meeting of two or more bones.Joints are classified into three types (depending on the material that hold the articular bones together):
3 Fibrous jointsSutures: only seen in between the skull bones and they frequently ossify with age).Syndesmosis:Inferior tibiofibular joint (no movement in this joints and never ossify).Interosseous membrane connecting bones of forearm & leg.Gomphosis: in the joints between the teeth and jaws. Each tooth is connected to the socket by periodontal membrane.
4 Cartilaginous jointsPrimary cartilaginous: these are temporary joints, in which the bones are connected by hyaline cartilage that ossifies with age. No movement is possible. This type is seen in:Epiphyseal plate connecting epiphysis and metaphysis.1st sternocostal joint between 1st costal cartilage and sternum.
5 Cartilaginous jointsSecondary cartilaginous: the bones are connected by disc of fibrocartilage, which rarely ossifies with age. A small amount of movement is possible. These joints are seen in the joints of midline of body:Intervertebral discsSymphysis pubisManubriosternal junction
6 Synovial jointsare held together by fibrous capsule & characterized by presence of joint cavity. Synovial joints are freely movable and represent most joints of the body.The capsule is lined by synovial membrane that secretes lubricating fluid (synovial fluid) for the articular surfaces.Articular ends are covered by hyaline cartilage.The capsule is thickened in certain parts to form ligaments, which provide strength and flexibility to the joint.
7 Synovial Joints Allow considerable movement Most joints that unite bones of axial and peripheral skeletonArticular cartilage and disksJoint cavity and capsuleSynovial membrane and fluidBursae
8 Types of synovial joints VarietyShapeMovementExamplePlaneflat articulating surfacesallow gliding or sliding movementAcromio-clavicular J.Intercarpal js.Intertarsal js..Uniaxial(allow movement around one axis only)Hinge- concave surface with convex surface- movement occurs around transverse axis- flexion & extensionElbow J.Inter-phalangeal Js.Pivot- bony pivot surrounded by a ring- movement occurs around vertical axis- pronation & supination- rotationRadioulnar Js.Atlantoaxial Js.Biaxial(allow movements around two axis)Ellipsoid- oval convex surface fits into an ellipsoid concavity- movement occurs around 2 axes perpendicular to each other- abduction & adductionWrist J.Metacarpo-phalangeal Js.Saddle- both articular surfaces are concavo-convex- movement in 2 axes like ellipsoid J. with slight rotation- slight rotationCarpo-metacarpal J. of thumbMultiaxial(allow move-ment around multiple axes)Ball & sockethead of one bone fits into a cup-like concavity of other bonecircumductionShoulder J.Hip J.
17 Points to RememberA joint or articulation is a meeting between two bones and does not necessarily imply movementA joint can be classified according to its structureSynovial joints are the most complexSpecific terms are used to describe the movements of joints that are freely movable.Commonly grouped in opposing pairs that move a part of the body in relation to the anatomical position.