Presentation on theme: "Vygotsky in the Classroom (about 14 min) The 3rd Principal Principle: Learning Occurs Best in the “Zone” Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) = gap btwn."— Presentation transcript:
The 3rd Principal Principle: Learning Occurs Best in the “Zone” Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) = gap btwn reliance on guidance to solve problems and independent problem solving –Refers to process of maturation –“Performance before competence” –Safe context for risk-taking in learning process (e.g., play) –Video on ZPDVideo Actual Dev. Level Potential Dev. Level
Role of Social Interaction in Learning ZPD is best time for social interaction Social interaction should be with someone who can provide appropriate guidance –“more capable peer” In some cases, regression is possible Intersubjectivity is important –Joint understanding of task goals, etc. –Shared power, shared authority Advanced partner provides scaffolding
Characteristics of Ideal Scaffold Term “scaffolding” actually introduced by Bruner to explain how students can learn when in ZPD Provides support Functions as tool to extend range of learner –Models skill or task –Breaks task into smaller, simpler components –Enhances motivation
Common Examples of Instructional Scaffolds Teacher thinks aloud to demonstrate –Activating prior knowledge –Asking questions or making predictions about task –Remembering steps in a task Breaking complex tasks into simpler steps Giving verbal cues or hints to problems Use of graphic organizers to help students assimilate new information
General Implications for Learning & Instruction Learning ≠ Development Not all children of same age will be in same “stage” of development Funds of Knowledge are transformed to Scientific Concepts Tasks should be slightly beyond child’s reach, but not too far beyond… –Questions should push development –Use of conflict/dilemmas Assessment should focus on current and potential knowledge
Questions for Instruction In literacy instruction, what practices do teachers engage in that are consistent with Vygotsky’s ZPD? What are some examples of use of computers as effective scaffolds for instruction? What are some non-examples? In general instruction, what types of scaffolding tools would be most effective? Why?