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The Processor Data Path & Control Chapter 5 Part 4 – Exception Handling N. Guydosh 3/1/04+

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Presentation on theme: "The Processor Data Path & Control Chapter 5 Part 4 – Exception Handling N. Guydosh 3/1/04+"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Processor Data Path & Control Chapter 5 Part 4 – Exception Handling N. Guydosh 3/1/04+

2 Introduction Exceptions vs. Interrupts –Meaning of terms depends on system and manufacturer. –Both terms imply events other that branches or jumps that change the normal flow of execution –Typically an exception is an unexpected event within the processor such as overflow and an interrupt is from outside the processor such as an I/O request –Sometimes either term is used for both conditions –MIP convention (used here): An exception is refers to any unexpected change in control flow without distinguishing whether the cause is internal or external. Requires immediate response from the processor - a hardware branch or “trap” to an exception handling routine Detecting and responding to exceptions may be on the performance critical path and could impact clock cycle time and performance. Two type of exceptions will be considered here: –Undefined instructions –Arithmetic overflow

3 Exception Handling Approach Basic exception handling approach –Save the address of the offending instruction in an “Exception Program Counter” (EPC) and transfer control to the exception handling entry point in the OS. Two methods handling exceptions: –Single entry point for all exceptions (above) and put the “cause” of the problem in a status register (cause register). Used by MIPS. –Vectored interrupts: the address to which control is transferred is a function of the cause of the exception. This is the approach used in the PC (Intel). Uses the interrupt vector table at the start of ram to branch to the correct interrupt handling routine (DOS or bios). No need for cause register.

4 Implementation Add two new 32 bit registers: EPC and “Cause Register” –For our example the low bit of cause will have a 1 or 0 indicating undefined instruction or overflow. –EPC Will be the address of the offending instruction. Note that the current PC will not be correct for the EPC because it was incremented early in the cycle. 4 must be subtracted from it, but this is ease because 4 is already an input to ALU and exception state simply has to assert ALUOP = 01 (subtract). See final state diagram. Additions to the data path: –Control line EPCWrite - Write (the address of the offending inst) to the EPC when asserted –Control line CauseWrite - Write(the cause code) to the cause register –Modify control lines PCSource to use the previously unused value of 11 – This will select a constant value for the PC (0xC0000000) which is the single entry point address of the exception handler. Add an extension to the state diagram (FSM) to handle exceptions –Bad opcode will branch off state 1 (instruction decode) –Overflow will branch off state 7 (last state of R - type after arithmetic is done

5 Mult-cycle Data Path With Exception Handling Support Cause and EPC registers added and expanded MUX for PC selection along with associated control lines.

6 Mult-Cycle FSM With Exception Handling Support States 10 and 11 added – note ALUOp is set to 01 (subtract) to correct PC before writing to EPC. Ignore the small “” at the ends of text lines – some kind of graphics glitch.

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