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Modified over 5 years ago
Review Chapter 12
Fundamental Flight Maneuvers Straight and Level Turns Climbs Descents
Turns The horizontal component of lift. Load Factor and Turns The relationship between angle of bank, load factor, and stall speed is the same for all airplanes
Turns Banking - increases stall speed To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius - increase bank and decrease speed To maintain altitude - increase angle of attack
Four Aerodynamic Forces Lift Thrust Drag Weight When are they in equilibrium?
Lift Perpendicular to the relative wind Induced drag is a by-product of lift In theory if the angle of attack and other factors remain constant double the speed - four times the lift
Controlling Lift Increase airspeed Change the angle of attack Change the shape of the airfoil Change the total area of the wings
Bernoulli’s Principle As the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases High pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing’s surface
Angle of Attack Directly controls the distribution of pressure acting on a wing. By changing the angle of attack, you can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed and drag.
Angle of Attack Angle of attack at which a wing stalls remains constant regardless of weight, dynamic pressure, bank angle or pitch attitude.
Stalls Stall speed is not a fixed value Stall speed is affected by weight, load factor and power Frost can cause a wing to stall at a lower than normal angle of attack
Flaps Plain Split Slotted Fowler
Ground Effect Within one wingspan of the ground An airplane leaving ground effect will experience an increase in what kind of drag? Induced
Drag What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed? Parasite Drag What kinds of drag make up parasite Drag
Drag Form Interference Skin Friction
Load Factor Ratio between the lift generated by the wings at any given time divided by the total weight of the airplane.
Load Factor A heavily loaded plane stalls at a higher speed than a lightly loaded airplane. It needs a higher angle of attack to generate required lift at any given speed than when lightly loaded.
Aircraft Stability Achieved by locating the center of gravity slightly ahead of the center of lift Need a tail down force on the elevator
Aircraft Stability In light planes, recovery from a spin may be difficult with a rearward CG Longitudinal stability involves motion about the lateral axis and is controlled by the elevator
Density Altitude High Hot Humid
Surface Winds Headwind or tailwind component –a 10 knot headwind might improve performance by 10% –a 10 knot tailwind might degrade performance by 40%
Performance Charts Experience Test Pilots Factory new Airplanes Repeated Tests using Best Results Format -Table -Graphic
Cruise Charts Range is the distance an airplane can travel with a given amount of fuel Endurance is the length of time the airplane can remain in the air
Cruise Charts Maximum range is at L/D max or best glide speed Maximum endurance is about 76% or best glide speed Generally close to stall speed
Excessive Weight Higher takeoff speed Longer takeoff run Reduced rate and angle of climb Lower maximum altitude
Excessive Weight Shorter range and endurance Reduced cruise speed and maneuverability Higher stall speed Higher landing speed and longer landing roll
Forward CG Effects Higher takeoff speed and ground roll Reduced rate and angle of climb Lower maximum altitude Reduced maneuverability
Forward CG Effects Higher stalling speed Reduction in performance caused by increased tail-down loading Reduced pitch authority
Beyond Aft CG Effects Decreased stability and increased susceptibility to over control Increased risk of stalls and spins of which recovery may be difficult or impossible
Weight Shift Computations Weight of Cargo Moved Distance CG moves Airplane weight = Distance Between Arm locations
Web site hyperlinks Weather ADDS - Aviation Digital Data Service Homepage FAA tests (FAA web) Pilot Testing FAA web site (General info) FAA Home Page.
ANGLE-of-ATTACK Proprietary Software Systems, Inc.
Aircraft Motion and Control
Lecture 3: Take-off Performance
Control on the ground ATC Chapter 2 & 3.
Weight and Balance.
Basic Aerodynamic Theory
ME 480 Introduction To Aerospace: Chapter 2 Prof. Doug Cairns.
Theory of Flight Flight Performance
Bernoulli's Principle It explains why and airplane gets lift
Theory of Flight 6.05 Lift and Drag References:
Weight and Balance. Weight Aerodynamic Stability Control Overall Performance.
6.07 Stalls References: FTGU pages 18, 35-38
Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering
Airplanes How an Airplane flies?.
Stability and Flight Controls
Basic Aerodynamic Theory and Lift
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