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Review Chapter 12

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Fundamental Flight Maneuvers Straight and Level Turns Climbs Descents

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Turns The horizontal component of lift. Load Factor and Turns The relationship between angle of bank, load factor, and stall speed is the same for all airplanes

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Turns Banking - increases stall speed To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius - increase bank and decrease speed To maintain altitude - increase angle of attack

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Four Aerodynamic Forces Lift Thrust Drag Weight When are they in equilibrium?

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Lift Perpendicular to the relative wind Induced drag is a by-product of lift In theory if the angle of attack and other factors remain constant double the speed - four times the lift

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Controlling Lift Increase airspeed Change the angle of attack Change the shape of the airfoil Change the total area of the wings

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Bernoulli’s Principle As the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases High pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing’s surface

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Angle of Attack Directly controls the distribution of pressure acting on a wing. By changing the angle of attack, you can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed and drag.

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Angle of Attack Angle of attack at which a wing stalls remains constant regardless of weight, dynamic pressure, bank angle or pitch attitude.

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Stalls Stall speed is not a fixed value Stall speed is affected by weight, load factor and power Frost can cause a wing to stall at a lower than normal angle of attack

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Flaps Plain Split Slotted Fowler

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Ground Effect Within one wingspan of the ground An airplane leaving ground effect will experience an increase in what kind of drag? Induced

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Drag What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed? Parasite Drag What kinds of drag make up parasite Drag

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Drag Form Interference Skin Friction

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Load Factor Ratio between the lift generated by the wings at any given time divided by the total weight of the airplane.

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Load Factor A heavily loaded plane stalls at a higher speed than a lightly loaded airplane. It needs a higher angle of attack to generate required lift at any given speed than when lightly loaded.

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Aircraft Stability Achieved by locating the center of gravity slightly ahead of the center of lift Need a tail down force on the elevator

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Aircraft Stability In light planes, recovery from a spin may be difficult with a rearward CG Longitudinal stability involves motion about the lateral axis and is controlled by the elevator

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Density Altitude High Hot Humid

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Surface Winds Headwind or tailwind component –a 10 knot headwind might improve performance by 10% –a 10 knot tailwind might degrade performance by 40%

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Performance Charts Experience Test Pilots Factory new Airplanes Repeated Tests using Best Results Format -Table -Graphic

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Cruise Charts Range is the distance an airplane can travel with a given amount of fuel Endurance is the length of time the airplane can remain in the air

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Cruise Charts Maximum range is at L/D max or best glide speed Maximum endurance is about 76% or best glide speed Generally close to stall speed

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Excessive Weight Higher takeoff speed Longer takeoff run Reduced rate and angle of climb Lower maximum altitude

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Excessive Weight Shorter range and endurance Reduced cruise speed and maneuverability Higher stall speed Higher landing speed and longer landing roll

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Forward CG Effects Higher takeoff speed and ground roll Reduced rate and angle of climb Lower maximum altitude Reduced maneuverability

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Forward CG Effects Higher stalling speed Reduction in performance caused by increased tail-down loading Reduced pitch authority

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Beyond Aft CG Effects Decreased stability and increased susceptibility to over control Increased risk of stalls and spins of which recovery may be difficult or impossible

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Weight Shift Computations Weight of Cargo Moved Distance CG moves Airplane weight = Distance Between Arm locations

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