2 Competencies (Page 1 of 2) Explain the five parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data.Distinguish between system software and application software.Discuss the three kinds of system software programs.Distinguish between basic and specialized application software.Identify the four types of computers and the four type of microcomputers.
3 Competencies (Page 2 of 2) 1-3Competencies (Page 2 of 2)Describe the different types of computer hardware including the system unit, input, output, storage, and communication devices.Define data and describe document, worksheet, database, and presentation files.Explain computer connectivity, the wireless revolution, and the Internet.
4 IntroductionComputer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skillsMicrocomputers are common tools in all areas of lifeNew forms of learning have developedNew ways to communicate, to find people with similar interests, and to buy goods are available.To be competent with IT, a comprehension of the five parts an information system are critical (refer to the ensuing slides)
5 Five Parts of an Information System 1-5Five Parts of an Information SystemPeopleProceduresSoftwareHardwareDataDefine an information systemSome students may think of a system as pertaining to just the hardwareRemind them that a microcomputer is part of an information systemTo be a competent end user (Key Term), one must understand the essentials of ITNote that IT stands for information technology (Key Term)
6 People Most important part of any system Contact is … Direct Indirect 1-6PeopleMost important part of any systemContact is …DirectIndirectComputer usesBusiness & EntertainmentEducation & MedicinePeople are the most important part of an information systemOur lives are touched everyday by computers- many time the contact is direct and obvious, such as creating documents using a word processing program or when connecting to the internet. Other times, it isn’t as obvious and is much more indirect as shown in a couple of the picturesHave students give examples of how they use computer applications throughout the daySome examples are:Instant messagingWeb-based applications New photos to be selected.Personal Web siteVirus protectionTV tuners and video clipsDigital photographyMusicHome networkingSpywareJob opportunitiesRefer to Figure 1-3 on pg. 7 in text provides a partial list of applications that students can use to “Make IT work for You”
7 Software AKA Programs Two major kinds of software System Software Application SoftwareSoftware is another name for programsPrograms are instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form you wantEmphasize differences between application and systems softwareSystem softwareOperating system (Key Term)UtilitiesDevice drivers (Key Term)Application softwareGeneral-purpose (Key Term)Special purpose
8 System Software A collection of programs-not a single program Enables the application software to interact with the hardware“Background software” that helps the computer manage its own resourcesSystemNot a single programA collection of programsTwo best known Operating systems are:Windows XPMac OS XUtilitiesService programs (key term)Performs tasks related to managing computer resourcesDevice driversApplicationReturn
9 Application Software End-user software Two major categories 1-9Application SoftwareEnd-user softwareTwo major categoriesBasic Application or General purposeSpecialized applications“End-user” software – these are the types of programs you have to know to be considered computer competentAn example of a basic application is a browser to navigate, explore and find information (Key Term) on the InternetTwo major categoriesGeneral purpose - basic programs; “off-the-shelf”Specialized application – narrow focus on specific disciplines and occupationsScreen capture to be replaced.
10 Hardware - Types of Computers 1-10Hardware - Types of ComputersSupercomputersMainframe computersMinicomputers (alsoknown as mid-rangecomputers)MicrocomputersThere are four types of computersSupercomputers (key term) – the most powerful; special high-capacity computers used in very large corporationsMainframe computers (key term) – are capable of great processing speed and data storage; occupy specially wired, air-conditioned rooms; insurance companies use to process information about millions of policyholdersMinicomputers (key term) - known as midrange computers (key term), are refrigerator sized machines used in medium sized companies or departments in large companiesMicrocomputers (key term) – least powerful but most widely used and fastest-growing type of computersDesktop (key term)Laptop or notebook (key term)Tablet PC (key term)Handheld computers (Key Term)Palm computers (Key Term)Personal digital assistants (PDA) (Key Term)Photos to be replaced.
11 Microcomputer Types Desktop Notebook or laptop Tablet PC Handheld 1-11 MicrocomputersDesktopLaptop or notebookTablet PCHandheld computersPalm computersPersonal digital assistants (PDA)Photos to be replaced.
13 Notebook or Laptop Computers 1-13Notebook or Laptop ComputersNotebook computers, also known as laptop computers, are portable, lightweight, and fit into most briefcasesNotebook computers are also known as laptopsHave students begin discussing the type(s) of notebook or laptop computer(s) they are using or familiar withReturn
14 Tablet PCA tablet PC is a type of notebook computer that accepts your handwriting. This input is digitized and converted to standard text that can be further processed by programs such as a word processor.Accepts handwritingAsk students if they are familiar with tablet PCsReturn
15 1-15HandheldAre the smallest and are also known as palm computers. These systems typically combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communications capabilities.Personal digital assistants (PDA’s) are the most widely used handheld computer.Personal digital assistants (PDA) are the most widely used handheld computerAsk students if they are familiar with palm computers or PDAs
16 Microcomputer Hardware Four basic categories of equipment:System UnitInput/outputSecondary StorageCommunicationSystem Unit is the container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system.Input/Output – Input devices (key term) translate data and programs from a form humans understand to a form computers can process;Secondary Storage – Unlike memory (key term), secondary storage holds data and programs even after the electrical power has been turned off—examples of secondary storage include USB drives, hard drives and optical drives and floppy drives eliminatedCommunication – one computer communicating with another computer or other computer systems using communication devices (key term) such as a modem
17 System Unit Two important components Microprocessor Memory Return 1-17 Systems unit-container houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer systemThe microprocessor controls and manipulates data to produce informationMemory holds data and program instructions for processing the data. It also holds the processed information before it is outputMemory is sometimes referred to as temporary storage because its contents will typically be lost if the electrical power to the computer is disruptedReturn
18 1-18Input/Output DevicesCommon input devices are the keyboard and the mouseCommon output devices are printers and monitorsReturn
19 Secondary StorageUnlike memory, secondary storage holds data and programs even if electrical power is not availableThe most important types of secondary media are Floppy, hard and optical disksFloppy disks are used to store and transport data from one computer to another. Floppy disks are named as such due to the fact that data is stored on a very thin flexible, or floppy, plastic disk ELIMINATE (floppy reference)Hard disks are typically used to store programs and very large data files. Hard disk have a much larger capacity and are able to access information much faster than floppy disksOptical disks use laser technology and have the greatest capacity.Examples of optical disks include:compact discs (CDs) (Key Term)digital versatile discs (DVDs) (Key Term)high definition (hi def) (Key Term) discsReturn
20 CommunicationsCommunication Devices provide microcomputers with the ability to communicate with other computer systems across the globeThe modem is the most widely used communication deviceModems modify telephone communications into a form that can be processed by a computerModems also modify computer output into a form that can be transmitted across standard telephone lines
21 Data Raw, unprocessed facts Processed data becomes information 1-21DataRaw, unprocessed factsProcessed data becomes informationStored electronically in filesDocument filesWorksheet filesDatabase filesPresentation filesCheck notes with book Used to describe facts about somethingContained in files for documents, worksheets, and databasesDocument files (key term) - usually created by word processorsWorksheet files (key term) - electronic spreadsheetsDatabase files (key term) - electronic database management programsPresentation files (key term) - electronic slide shows
22 Document FilesCreated by word processors to save documents such as memos, term papers, and lettersWord processors are used to prepare written documentsCreate text-based documentsOne of the most flexible and widely used software toolsFeatures to make entering, editing, and formatting documents easyReturn
23 1-23Worksheet FilesCreated by electronic spreadsheets to analyze things like budgets and to predict salesFiles created by spreadsheet programsUses functions and formulas to analyze numeric dataManipulates numeric dataFeatures include workbooks, worksheets, cells, ranges, text and numeric entries, formulas, functions, charts, recalculation, and what-if analysisReturn
24 1-24Database FilesTypically created by database management programs to contain highly structured and organized dataA database management system (DBMS) or database manager is a program that sets up, or structures, a databaseFiles created by database management programsOrganizes data for efficient retrievalIs the electronic equivalent of a file cabinetIt also provides tools to enter, edit, and retrieve data from the databaseReturn
25 Presentation FilesCreated by presentation graphics programs to save presentation materials. For example, a file might contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides.Used to create a variety of visual objects to create attractive, visually interesting presentationsFeatures include slides, AutoContent wizard, color schemes, slide layouts, special effects, master slides, and design templatesPresentation files may contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides
26 Connectivity, the Wireless Revolution, and the Internet 1-26Connectivity, the Wireless Revolution, and the InternetConnectivitySharing of informationWireless communication has widespread useComputer networksConnected communication system of computersLargest network is the InternetConnectivity is the capability of your microcomputer to share information with other computersWireless /mobile communication devices are more popular than everA network is central to the concept of connectivityAsk students questions about the Internet. Here are some facts:No one owns the InternetThere is no Internet, Inc.The Internet is a network of networksThe Word Wide Web (key term) (WWW) provides multimedia interface to resources on the Internet
27 1-27Careers in ITFor a complete listing of careers, visit keyword: careers
28 A Look to the Future The Internet & Web Powerful Software 1-28A Look to the FutureThe Internet & WebPowerful SoftwarePowerful HardwareSecurity & PrivacyOrganizationsChanging TimesInternet & Web - browse the Web, communicate with others, locate Information, etc…Powerful Software - create professional looking documents, analyze massive amounts of data, create dynamic multimedia pages, and more.Powerful Hardware – more powerful & robust, new technologies such as wireless networks & their impact to connect, equipment can be dynamic vs. essential features of devices remain staticSecurity & Privacy – negative impacts, potential mental & physical health risk, negative effects on the environment, etc…Organizations – organizational information systems and their useChanging Times – fast paced era and rapid change
29 Discussion Questions (Page 1 of 2) Explain the five parts of an information system. What part do people play in this system?What is system software? What kinds of programs are included in system software?Define and compare basic and specialized application software. Describe some different types of basic applications. Describe some types of specialized applications.Have students turn to the end of Chapter 1 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements
30 Discussion Questions (Page 2 of 2) Describe the different types of computers. What is the most common type? What are the types of microcomputers?What is connectivity? How are the wireless revolution and connectivity related? What is a computer network? What is the Internet? What is the Web?Have students turn to the end of Chapter 1 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements