Understanding Culture Understanding Culture. Culture = the way of life, esp. the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular.
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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Culture Understanding Culture. Culture = the way of life, esp. the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular."— Presentation transcript:
Culture = the way of life, esp. the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time.
Culture involves rules: Assigns roles (subordinates, gender) Assigns roles (subordinates, gender) Determines what is humorous or tragic. Determines what is humorous or tragic. Dictates rituals Dictates rituals Defines appropriate (business) behavior Defines appropriate (business) behavior
Sub-cultures Tribal Political Work/Business ?? National Religious Military Family
Social Institutions Groups of persons banded together for common purposes having rights, privileges, liabilities, goals, or objectives distinct and independent from those of individual members
Organizational culture? -- overlapping webs or patterns of widely shared and deeply felt values and assumptions that are shared across an organization, which drive behaviors and performance levels.
There is no such thing as a corporate culture. Companies are made up of many cultures, the strengths and weaknesses of which are a result of local conditions. Source: Fast Company. 49, p. 88 According to consultant and author Marcus Buckingham:
Manifestations of culture: Symbols Symbols Heroes/Legends Heroes/Legends Rituals Rituals Discourse Discourse Is corporate culture displacing national culture?
Cultures in Conflict NationalCulture Organizational Culture Trans-national Corporation
ethnocentrism – the tendency to regard one’s own group or culture as superior to those of others ethnocentrism – the tendency to regard one’s own group or culture as superior to those of others
culture shock – the frustration, anxiety, and stress that result from being subjected to new and unfamiliar cues about what to do and how to do it.
According to Hofstede all national cultures can be characterized according to the following key dimensions: Power Distance The extent to which the less powerful members of society accept that power is unequally distributed. Individualism In individualistic societies there are few ties beyond those of the nuclear family, whereas in collectivist societies people belong to strong, cohesive in-groups. Masculinity In 'masculine' societies men are assertive, tough, and concerned with material success, whereas women are more modest, tender, and interested in the quality of life. In 'feminine' societies, both are equally concerned with quality of life. Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. This is expressed in a need for formality, predictability and clear rules. Long-Term Pragmatic The extent to which people favor a pragmatic, future-oriented perspective - fostering virtues like perseverance and thrift - over short-term thinking. National Culture Classification
Future How do cultures change? How do cultures change? How long does it take? How long does it take? What is being lost or gained? What is being lost or gained? Who benefits? Who benefits? What is the role of business leaders? What is the role of business leaders?
Metaphors for new global culture New world order New world order Global village Global village ?
Are cultures converging? Evidence is Mixed Evidence is Mixed even if you only look at the rich countries even if you only look at the rich countries People respond with efforts to strengthen their cultural identity People respond with efforts to strengthen their cultural identity immigrants, researchers, family members, hobbyists, extremists... immigrants, researchers, family members, hobbyists, extremists... living together apart living together apart
Is there a “best” culture? How necessary is it that one become inter- culturally competent? How does one become inter-culturally competent?